Abaca: A 'hard' fibre obtained from the leaf sheaths of the wild banana plant.
Acanthus: Foliage design based on the Mediterranean plant Acanthus spinosus, widely used in European arts.
Alpaca: A warm fine woolen cloth, made from the hair of the alpaca goat. The fiber is small but strong, elastic, lustrous and silky. The alpaca goat is common to Chile and Peru.
Ai (indigo): Blue dye; derived from the indigo plant; various shades achieved by repeated immersions interspersed with periods of drying (allows dye to oxidize and darken); medicinal properties are ascribed to both plant and dye; commonly believed, cloth dyed in indigo will resist insect damage [Attr.].
Aigi: A full-length woman's kosode worn under a uchikake. Usually patterned with kanoko shibori.
Aizome: Indigo dying [Attr.].
Ajiro: Fabric woven with shaved bamboo or cypress trees.
Akane: dye color derived from madder root [Rubia cordifolia]; produces a deep, 'lipstick' red tint [trad.]
Akigusa or akikusa: (autumn flowers and grasses�): classic motif consisting of various selections of flowers and autumn grasses; traditionally includes hagi (bush clover), kiku (chrysanthemum), susuki (pampas grass), kikyo (Chinese bellflower), but others may be added; frequently used to decorate lacquer, textiles, and porcelain [AoJ,v.1,pg.90,91+137]
Aobana: Pale blue tracing liquid extracted from a particular variety of the tsuyukusa plant (Commelina communis) that washes off easily in water and is used for drawing designs on to the fabric in Yuzen dyeing and tie-dyeing.
Arare (hailstone): pattern of small, evenly spaced squares, arranged in checker board fashion; alternately called ishi-datami when used on court fabrics; [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]
Asa: is term to describe bast fibers, meaning a fiber taken from plants, and also including ramie, hemp, jute and linen. Asa fibers were lightly spun or twisted into threads that were easy to weave, dye and pattern.
Asanoha (hemp leaf): motif based upon the leaf of the hemp plant; arranged as a repeated, six-pointed star pattern; frequently used on female clothing (especially during the Taisho era) [trad.]
Ashide: originally a loose, flowing style of calligraphy used in landscapes and resembling scenic elements such as rocks, reeds, water, trees, and such; now, any style of design that employs calligraphy in this fashion [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]
Atozome: refers to fabric that is decorated after weaving. In post-dyeing, fabrics are dyed after they are woven. Yuzen dyeing, komon (small pattern dyeing) and shiborizome (tie-dyeing) are examples of atozome.
Atsuita: stiff compound weave that combines a twill ground with plain weave patterns in multi-colored threads; presently used for No' costumes exclusively [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]
Aya: any solid color, twill-woven fabric; often used in conjunction with more elaborate textured weaves [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]
Aya-ori: twill weave. The weft yarn crosses over or under three or more warp yarns in twill weaves. The point where the weft and warp cross is called the soshikiten, or structure point. In a twill weave the structure point floats successively to create a diagonal pattern on the surface of the fabric.
Bane: medallion motif used on textiles and dance costumes during the Heian period [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]
Basho-: banana [Musa liukiuensis]: fiber of the inner leaf sheath; when stripped and braided used as thread; superceded asa as most common fiber in Okinawa [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg.41]
Benibana: safflower [Carthamus tinctorius] and the color derived from its' petals after many dippings; tint can range from pink to scarlet; very fugitive to sunlight [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg.25]
Bingata: polychrome textiles dyed with stencils against a red or yellow ground; originated in the Ryukyu Island (principally Okinawa), where is was reserved for the nobility; complex designs typically organized in parallel registers; pastels traditionally favored. Red sets the tone for the more colorful Bingata designs, while deep blue patterns provide a cooler feel.
Bokashi: shading or blending of color or ink, typically of yuzen dyeing and tsujigahana.
Bozugappa (priest cape): hip-length, semi-circular cape with shallow stand-up collar; formed from two layers of cloth (usually cotton) with inner layer of water proof paper; modeled after capes worn by Jesuits of the 17th century. [Trad.]
Bugaku: form of dance pantomime, based upon T'ang dynasty traditions; masked and unmasked roles form the model for noh; preserved by the Imperial court since the Heian period [trad.]
Chayatsuji/zome: bleached, hemp or ramie cloth, that is dyed with indigo by means of rice-paste resist techniques; characterized by small, fine-lined elements; landscape scenes are typical and sometimes ornamented with embroidery; generally preferred for summer wear, by women of the samurai class during the Edo period [AoJ,v.1,pg.107,137]
Chayazome: summer kimono made of ramie and created by special tsutsugaki technique; worn by high-ranking samurai women.
Chijimi: Formally called Omeshi Chirimen, which is pre-dyed fabric with fine wrinkles on its surface. The wrinkles come out with strongly twisted silk weft threads.
Chirashimoyo (scattered motifs): style of decoration featuring motifs randomly scattered (apparently); yet with a well-balanced and overall composition [JCaTA,pg.125-131]
Chirimen: A plain weave silk crepe fabric. The warp is untwisted, unglossed thread and the weft is highly twisted, unglossed thread. These twisted threads are then starched to retain the twist while weaving. After weaving, the starch is washed out of the fabric, allowing the twist in the wefts to be released, creating a fabric with a crinkled surface. Favored ground for Yuzen dyeing.
Choken: open-front coat used mainly for female Noh roles with double-wide sleeves; loosely closed with cord ties.
Choma: ramie [Boehmeria nivea]; leaf fiber used in folk textiles; [BtTB, Cort, pg.38]
Chugata: literally, 'middle size pattern', this refers to stencil dyeing using stencils with patterns larger than komon. The term is nowadays used synonymously with yukata or summer kimono. Resist rice paste is applied by stencil to both sides of the fabric prior to dip-dyeing.
Chuya-Obi: A reversible Obi with contrasting patterns on each face. Literally, "Chuya" means night and day. As early Chuya-Obi had black side and patterned side, it is compared to dark night and bright day time.
Daimyo: colloquial term for a clan leader; technically, one who held an estate producing 10,000+ koku (50,000 bushels of rice) per annum and was directly subject to the Shogun at the time of Tokugawa Ieyasu's death [HoJ,v.3,pg.___].
Dandarazome: style of kosode decoration consisting of dramatically-colored stripes that are dyed rather than woven; popularized by Mizuki Tatsunosuke, a Kabuki actor [JCaTA,pg.40]
Dangawari: a type of kosode that is decorated in large check or plaid pattern; with or without floral motifs [JCaTA, il.9,13]
Dobuku or Dofuko: A man�s outer coat, worn by the upper echelon of the warrior class from the fourteenth to the early seventeenth century. It was the forerunner of the present day haori.
Donsu: damask weave with isolated motifs on a satin ground; particularly in emulation of Ming dynasty styles [trad.]
Eboshi: style of peaked cap worn by the bushi class; usually made of braided, and lacquered fiber or horesehair [trad.]
Edokomon: variety of small-figured, densely repeated, textile pattern, created by means of resist stenciling; characteristic style from Edo; often favored by the samurai class for formal wear [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]
Edoyuzen: style of decoration that sparingly employs yuzen techniques; named after Edo (now Tokyo) and reflects the sober taste of the Shogun's court. Edo-yuzen is characterized by its pale colour and patterns painted only on the front side.
Egasuri (picture kasuri): style of kasuri pattern featuring naturalistic motifs; often combined with geometric ones as well [trad.]
Eigata: resist-dyed fabric in traditional Okinawan style; similar to bingata, but features an indigo, either as the ground or in the motifs, and characterized by a pale color palette [trad.]
Emoyo: �pictorial design�., as opposed to geometric or abstract patterns
Enuki: a patterning technique in which coloured wefts are used in addition to the warp and weft threads of the woven ground.
Fuji: wisteria [Wistaria chinensis]; also, bast fiber favored for fabrics that require durability in water [BtTB; Cort, pg.38]
Fuki: an addition or extension of the hemline of a kosode, especially the uchikake. It is a roll of padding covered by the lining that both weights the garment, thereby controlling the fall of the skirt, and protects the expensive fabric of the kosode from soil and wear.
Fukuro obi (bag sash): ): In it�s original form, the fukuro obi was woven as a tube, however, more recently it is constructed of two pieces sewn separately and sewn together. They are patterned fully or 60% on one side with the reverse side usually blank. Appropriate for formal and semiformal occasions.
Fukusa: An embroidered, dyed or painted square fabric cover with a lining that is laid over a gift when presented by the giver.
Funabashi (boat bridge): a landscape motif, consisting of a curved bridges and punted skiffs; a popular motif in the Edo period [AoJ,v.1,pg.108]
Furisode: Literally meaning �swinging or waving sleeves�. A long-sleeved heavily patterned variation of the kosode worn by children and unmarried women on special occasions. Waving the sleeve was thought to attract a husband.
Furoshiki: wrapping cloth: square cloth used for wrapping, storing and carrying objects.
Fusenryo (floating line): originally, a type of plain twill fabric with designs created by an over-weave of loose threads; now designates, a pattern of large medallions, which was a common motif for those fabrics [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]
Futonji: bedding cover.
Gagaku: style of theatrical performance that combines Bugaku and Gigaku arts; based upon T'ang dynasty traditions; adopted by Imperial court as the basis for court ceremonial entertainment [trad.]
Genjiko: geometric motifs associated with the 54 chapters of the Genjimonogatari; originally markers used in an incense game (Ko' awase); often used for textile decoration and on porcelains [trad.]
Gigaku: style of orchestral music extant in Japan; based upon T'ang dynasty traditions and preserved by the Imperial court; forms the basis for Gagaku performances [trad.]
Ginran: twill silk fabric with decorative motifs woven in silver thread; first introduced to Japan during Ming dynasty [JCaTA,pg.143,44]
Gojiru: soy bean extract, a milky liquid made by grinding soy beans that stabilizes the colours of dyes and pigments and prevents blurring.
Goshotoki (palace motifs): repertoire of design motifs favored in Shogun's household [JCaTZ, pg.90]
Goshuden (palace style): restrained style characterized by small motifs; stressed dignified effects; emulates yusoku style; constitutes yabo taste: thought staid by urban class [JCaTA, pg. 87-90]
Gotenjo: style of decoration; resembles coffered ceilings, commonly seen in shrines and temples; especially if floral motifs are set in a square grid [trad.]
Habutae: smooth, glossy, and tight, plain weave silk; resembles taffeta; first produced at Nishijin (Kyoto) from the Momoyama period onward [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]
Hagi (bush clover): one element of the akigusa motif; plant has glossy oval leaves and fine purple flower heads [AoJ,v.1,pg.69]
Hakama: since the Heian period, pleated, loose, overtrouser, put on after the kosode; now, largely reduced to just a pleated skirt without interior division; largely used in men's formal dress; types include hanbakama, hangire, nagabakama, Sendaibakama, or umanori; length and fit dependent upon intended activities such as kendo (fencing) or kyudo (archery).
Hakata obi: single layered, tightly woven obi; characterized by thick weft threads and stiff, tight weave; originated in Hakata [trad.]
Hakkake: hem of the lining of kimono. Usually, the colour for hakkake is bright and selected to match the color of Kimono. It is also called suso-mawashi. The colour and design of hakkake appears and disappears while walking, which looks elegant and fashionable
Hanabishi (flower diamond): diamond-shaped floral motif consisting of four petals with foliate edges; frequently placed in a geometric lattice of hexagons or rhombuses [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]
Hanaguruma (flower cart): decorative motif featuring a two-wheeled cart with yoke (modeled after Heian period ox-carts) and flowers (often arranged in a large basket or vase) [trad.]
Hanbakama: ankle-length hakama consisting of both a pleated front and separate back portion that are joined at the outer leg seams; marked by even hemline and no interior separation [trad.]
Hangire: form of very full hakama with elaborate woven designs and gathered at the ankles.
Hanhaba obi: a kind of Obi that is half the width of other Obi. You can wear Hanhaba-Obi more casually with Yukata and other Kimonos.
Haori (�to put on�): A short, kimono-style jacket worn over the kimono. The front is left open rather than overlapped and is tied with silk cords. Originally worn by men only. Women allowed to wear after Meiji-era, and became all the rage in Taisho period (1912-1926). Men's haori often have unique pictures, woven, painted or printed on their linings.
Happi: unlined, half-length, open-front coat, with full-length collar; typically, sleeves are close-fitting [trad.]
Harite: wooden bars used to stretch bolt of kimono cloth
Heko obi: sash of loosely woven fabric; usually three meters in length for adults; often decorated with shibori designs; can be worn by both genders in casual settings, but most often my males and children with yukata [trad.]
Hi: shuttle, a boat-shaped piece of equipment made of wood, sometimes with metal components, that is used to pass the weft thread between the warps. The weft thread is wound around a tube in the open centre of the shuttle.
Hikeshi Hanten: a thick fireman�s jacket
Hikizome: A technique in which dye or pigment is applied to fabric by brush, as opposed to immersion dyeing. Used in yuzen dyeing.
Hingatabon: pattern books for kosode designs; first circulated in 17th century as means of ordering custom work [K:FC,pg.271-321]
Hiogi: folding fan made from cypress splints; an accessory of Heian period court dress; a common motif for textiles [trad.]
Hiraori: plain weaving, in which the warp threads and weft threads cross each other alternately. Plain weave fabrics are sturdy and hard-wearing, and are ideally suited for use as everyday wear or work clothes.
Hirosode (wide sleeve): wide in this context is measured along the cuff opening; in contrast to the kosode, the cuff is left open [JCaTA,pg.13]
Hitoe: Literally �one layer�. Hitoe used as a noun is a name for the unlined silk summer kimono. As an adjective, hitoe is used to describe a single-layered garment such as an unlined kariginu.
Hitokoshi-Chirimen: A kind of Chirimen, crepe silk. This is characterized by its small and minute wrinkle. This crepe silk is flat and very firm.
Hitotsumi: long Kimono for infants.
Hiyokujitate: tailoring technique; simulates additional layers by permanently attaching extra interior sleeves or collars [trad.]
Ho: open-front coat; worn by male courtiers with double-width sleeves; often in combination with hangire when used for Noh performances.
Hoju: Buddhist pearl that is shaped like a peach; it has a rounded form with a pointed top and may be ringed with a flaming aura. One of the auspicious Collection of Treasures motifs.
Homongi: �Homon� means `to visit' and `gi' is a `wear'. It's a formal wear both married and unmarried women. It can be worn at the parties or when calling on somebody. It's characterized by colorful designs running continuously over the seams. The length of the sleeves varies, unmarried women wear with longer sleeves. Homongi is usually worn with the double-folded(fukuro) obi with matching obi-age(bustle sash) and obijime(a tyeing cord).
Horaisan: [Ho-rai : mountain]: mythical mountain where Taoist immortals were said to dwell; often depicted as a island capped by a lone peak; derived from the Chinese name P'eng-lai Shan [AoJ,v.1,pg.138]
Hosoge: floral motif frequently used in Buddhist ornamentation, which features an imaginary flower of even-numbered petals; perhaps originally based upon the peony [AoJ,v.1,pg.40-44]
Ichimatsu: checkerboard pattern in light and dark colors; largely popularized in the Edo period (1741) by Sanogawa Ichimatsu, an Osaka actor [JCaTA,pg.40
Igeta: decorative motif consisting of two sets of parallel beams, criss-crossed and enclosing a diamond; form represents drinking well as seen in isometric perspective; frequently used as kasuri motif [trad.]
Iki: (pure, unadulterated): chic, up to date; a standard of taste that favored sophisticated simplicity; established in opposition to yabo; applied especially to personal dress [JCaTA,pg.87-92]
Inkin: stamped gauze weave; originally a Ming import; usually small motifs.
Irotomesode: a formal kimono same as kurotomesode but the base is not black but beautiful light colors. It's the second most formal kimono for married women. It also has five family crests and have more festive air and worn at formal parties or gatherings.
Ishidatami (paving stone): checkerboard pattern originally derived from stone paving in Chinese palaces; similar to ichimatsu but often laid on a diagonal and without color contrasts [AoJ,v.1,pg.138]
Itajime: A dyeing technique similar to that used in the Nara period to make kyokechi resist dyed textiles that involves clamping yarns or lengths of fabric between wooden boards, usually used in groups of 10-20, that have been carved with decorative motifs. When the dye is poured on the clamped areas remain white.
Jiire: Sizing of the fabric prior to dyeing with gojiru, seaweed glue or water to prevent blotching and to ensure an even take up of the dye.
Jinboari: sleeveless half-coat worn by warriors on the battlefield. Jinbaori patterns were often designed to show off a warriors military power.
Jinken: an artificial fiber similar to dacron-polyester