YORKE ANTIQUE TEXTILES
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Glossary

General | Japanese
General

Abaca: a ‘hard’ fibre obtained from the leaf sheaths of the wild banana plant.

Acanthus: foliage design based on the Mediterranean plant Acanthus spinosus, widely used in European arts.

Alpaca: a warm fine woolen cloth, made from the hair of the alpaca goat. The fiber is small but strong, elastic, lustrous and silky. The alpaca goat is common to Chile and Peru.

Angora: a light, silky dress goods made from the hair of the angora goat of Turkey.

Aniline dyes: Aniline is a chemical base which yields many colors, though it is initself a colorless, oily, aromatic liquid. Now obtained from coal-tar, it was originally made by distilling indigo with caustic potash. The development of aniline dyes was the high-point of nineteenth century dye research.

Applique: the application - usually by stitching - of fabrics cut to certain shapes, or of embroidered motifs, to the surface of a ground material to form a design.

Arabesque: curving scrolls that cross and interlace ornamented with the forms of leaves and flowers.

Atma stitch or Oriental stitch: a type of flat stitch, this stitch is actually a combination of two stitches: single-faced satin stitch and Bukharan-couching. A single-faced satin stitch is used to cover the whole motif area, using unspun silk. Then a plied silk thread is laid over the first layer of embroidered unspun silk threads at a ninety-degree angle. This second layer of plied silk is secured by bringing the same plied silk thread up from below.

Bark-cloth: smooth fabric made from a fibrous plant substance, usually inner bark or bast, which is softened, flattened and felted by beating and soaking.

Basket Weave: a variant of the plain weave formed by treating two or more warp yarns and/or two or more filling yarns as one unit in the weaving process. The yarns are laid flat and maintain a parallel relationship. Examples include monk cloth or oxford cloth.

Bast fibre: strong, soft, woody fibres such as flax, jute, hemp and ramie which come from the inner bark of plants

Batik: a method - originating in Java - of resist dyeing which employs wax as the resist. The pattern is covered with wax and the fabric is then dyed, producing a white design on a dyed ground. The waxed patterns will not take the dye, and the wax is removed after dyeing. The process is repeatedto obtain multicolored designs. The effect is sometimes imitated in machine prints.

Bed-hangings: these consisted of tester, celour, curtain and bed-coverings in the Middle Ages. In the 16th century, when the bed took the form of wainscot. Head and tester, supported by two posts, the hangings were limited to curtains and valances. Later, the beds were entirely covered and draped in textiles, until in the Georgian period they became again less pronounced.

Berlin wool work: a type of needlework invented in Berlin, Germany, early in the 19th century, the design being blocked and colored on canvas, and done by the crossstitch. The best Berlin-work was for furniture coverings in flower and conventionalized designs. The so-called zephyr wool, a fine dyed worsted, gave the best results, but silk, chenille and beads were also used. This work was very popular here, also in England, following the decline of the sampler in the Victorian period.

Binding point: the place at which a warp thread is held in place by a weft thread, or a weft thread by a warp thread.

Blackwork: the name given to the English technique of thread-counted needlework on linen with black silk.

Bleaching: this is the process of whitening textile fibers and fabrics by exposure to the sun and weather, as it was practised before the Christian era, or by treatment with chemicals. In the 18th century a bleaching solution of potash and lye was used and in 1785 the powerful bleaching quality of chlorine was discovered, since which time various other bleaching processes have been discovered.

Block printing: a method of patterning the surface of a fabric with dye transferred through the pressure from a craved wooden block.

Bobbin lace: the name is derived from the bone bobbin used, in distinction from the needlepoint lace. This form of lace-making was introduced into England in the last half of the 16th century and in the time of Queen Anne had become a prominent industry. It was first made in this country at Ipswich, Massachusetts, in the 18th century by workmen from England. See LACE.

Boteh: curvilinear shape with curled top derived from Persian flower spray pattern and perfected during the Mughal period in India. Popularity associated with shawls.

Brocade: fabric patterning with supplementary weft while the piece is being woven. Term used generally to mean a richly-patterned textile, often with gold or silver yarns.

Brocading weft: an extra weft, in addition to the main weft, that is not woven selvedge to selvedge but is used only where needed by the pattern.

Brocatelle: A lampas-woven fabric with silk warps that is characterized by a marked relief of the warp-faced weave. This results from the use of coarse linen ground weft and silk pattern wefts, and from the appropriate tensions between the warps and wefts.

Bukharan stitch: a type of self-couching stitch in which the couching thread secures down the previously laid stitch with small slanting stitches on the journey back. Both the couching thread and couched thread are the same. In appearance, the couching stitch is short on the front face and long on the back face of the fabric.

Burn test: used (under strict conditions and controls) for identifying fibres. Different fibres react in different and distinct ways when burnt. Cotton burns steadily and smells like burning leaves. The ash left is easily crumbled. Linen takes longer to ignite than cotton and the fabric closest to the ash is very brittle. Can be easily distinguished by blowing as you would a candle. Silk burns readily and smells like burning hair. Not as easily extinguished. Wool is harder to ignite than silk. It produces a steady flame but is more difficult to keep alight. Smells like burning hair. Of the man-made fibres acetate (from cellulose) burns readily with a flickering flame than cannot easily be extinguished. The burning cellulose drips and leaves a hard ash. Smells like burning wood chips. Acrylic (from natural gas and petroleum) burns readily and leaves a hard ash. It smells acrid. Nylon (from petroleum) melts then burns rapidly. Smells like burning plastic. Polyester (from coal, air and petroleum products) melts and burns at the same time. The melting, burning ash bonds quickly to any surface. Smells sweet and has a black smoke. Ash is hard. Rayon (from cellulose) burns rapidly and leaves only slight ash. Smells of burning leaves.

Buttonhole stitch: a simple looping stitch which is employed in needlework. It is also the foundation stitch of all needle lace.

Caftan: A full-length loose outer robe worn in various Islamic countries. The Turkish version fastens in front and has short or long sleeves, the latter sometimes detachable.

Calico: the name derives from Calicut, a port on the west coast of India, south of Madras, where textiles were collected for shipment by the East India Company. The name was applied to Indian cotton cloth, whther coarse or fine, woven with colored stripes or checks, painted or printed. In modern usage, calico generally refers to cottons printed with small-scale patterns, especially dress goods.

Canvaswork: embroidery worked on evenweave canvas fabric by counting threads.

Ceplokan: category of geometric batik patterns based on repetitions of squares, rectangles, ovals and stars.

Cepuk: ritual weft-ikat cloth from Bali, Indonesia, or neighbouring Nusa Penida

Chain stitch: pne of the looped stitches worked with either a needle or a hook. If worked with a needle, the thread is brought up at the beginning of the row. The needle is then inserted into the same hole where the thread first emerged, forming a loop, and is brought up through the fabric again a short distance beyond. It is then brought out through and over the loop of working thread. If the stitch is done with a hook, the thread is hooked from above and pulled through to create a loop. This loop is then secured with another loop pulled through the same way.

Challis: a lightweight fabric having a soft plain weave with a brushed surface. Often printed with a floral print and usually made of cotton, wool or rayon.

Chine: a technique of printing or resist-dyeing warp threads prior to weaving. When warps are colored by printing, they are loosely woven with temporary wefts. After printing, the temporary wefts are removed, leaving a printed warp that is then rewoven into its final form.

Cinde: the name by which patola silk double-ikat cloth is known in Java and Sumatra.

Chantilly lace: French elaborate floral lace on hexagonal mesh ground outlined in heavy silk thread.

Chambray: the fabric originated in the Northern French town of Cambrai near the Belgian border. A light, good quality cotton commonly made in stripes and checks. Usually constructed with a slightly coarser corded or combed cotton yarn in the weft than in the warp. It is woven in a plain weave and given a fairly hard finish.

Chenille fabric: a fabric woven with chenille yarns which have a pile effect similar to velvet, and when woven through various warps can create a pile-like velvet, or, if woven on a jacquard loom, can look similar to a cut velvet

Chevron: Broken twill or herringbone weave giving a chevron effect, creating a design of wide "Vs " across the width of the fabric.

Chintz: a mordant-painted or block-printed cotton textile, sometimes glazed, made primarily in India, England and Holland during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Complementary wefts: more than one set of wefts that equally share in the formation of the ground weave. Complementary wefts exchange place and function within a weave to allow for color and pattern changes.

Copper plate printing: a method of patterning the surface of the fabric with dye transferred through the pressure of a press on an engraving copper plate.

Cotton: vegetable fibre obtained from the floss of the seed heads of the cotton plant. The chemical composition is almost 100% cellulose and the natural colour is cream. Cotton makes a strong fabric which is cool to wear.

Couching or couched stitches: a needlework technique in which threads are laid over a pattern line or area and held in place by short stitches made through a foundation fabric. May be executed with a variety of stitches and patterns.

Coverlet: textile covering of a bed.

Crepe: crinkly fabric of tightly-spun yarn.

Crewel: chain stitch embroidery made with a fine, loosely twisted, two-ply worsted yarn on a plain weave fabric. Done by hand, for the most part, in the Kashmir Province of India and in England.

Crossed stitches: a unit stitch composed of two flat stitches crossing the same small area at opposite or oblique angles. Each flat stitch may be crossed before the next is is worked, or a whole row of parallel slanting stitches may be worked first, and the crossing stitches worked in a second ‘journey’. Crossed stitches may be counted or not. Fishbone, herringbone, and Rhodian cross are a few examples of this category.

Cutwork: originally an APPLIQUE of cut-out shapes, the name was transferred to embroidery in which parts of the ground were cut away. From the mid-sixteenth century it became the generic name for all forms of needle lace based on a woven ground.

Damask: a self-patterned weave of one warp and one weft set in which the pattern is produced by the juxtaposition of the warp and weft faces of the same cloth. Originally a firm Jacquard-patterned fabric made in China and introduced to the West by Marco Polo in the 13th century. The name is from Damascus, the centre of the fabric trade between East and West.

Dandong: Iban man’s shoulder cloth.

Dival embroidery: an embroidery style sometimes referred to as maras isi, from the town of Maras in southeastern Turkey. A paper cutout design is pasted over the ground fabric using special glue. The embroidery is then worked by holding a group of gold metallic-wrapped threads and moving them from side to side on top of the fabric over the paper cutout design. During this process, on each side, the metal threads are then secured to the ground fabric with a separate couching thread.

Double-cloth: a weave with two warp sets, each interlacing with its own weft set or sets, put on a loom so that two textiles are woven - in layers - simultaneously. These cloths can be completely separate from one another, joined by stitching ties, joined at the selvedges, or joined by patterning achieved by exchanging the position of each set of warps on the loom while weaving.

Double-ikat: Ikat resist-dyeing process which is applied separately to both the weft and warp threads. These are woven in a balanced plainweave so that the resulting fabric is patterned in designs that are a compound of the differently patterned warp and weft threads.

Double running stitch: a type of flat stitch, this stitch consists of a simple running stitch worked in two journeys over the same line. This stitch, which appears the same on both sides, is known by several names: Holbein stitch, line, square, stroke, two-sided lin, two-sided stroke, and Romanian stitch.

Drawn work: a needlework technique in which counted warp and weft threads are removed from the foundation fabric and the remaining threads are worked with decorative stitches. Also called punto tirato.

Embroidering: embellishing a foundation fabric with decorative stitches by using needle and thread.

Endek: weft-ikat cloth of silk or artificial fiber woven in Bali, Indonesia.

Eyelet stitch: a type of flat stitch, this stitch consists of a series of back stitches worked in pairs, disposed from the same center.

Felt, felting: a process of producing a firm fabric from the matting and adherence of a mass of fibres lying indiscriminately in all directions by mechanical processes such as pressure, moisture, pounding.

Feng-huan: the mythical Chinese phoenix bird, now a textile motif.

Fibre: any tough substance, natural or man-made, composed of thread-like tissue capable of being made into yarn.

Fishbone stitch: a type of crossed stitch, generally worked as a filling stitch. A series of slanted crossed stitches, with satin stitches taken alternatively from one side to the other and crossing at the center of the work, near the base of each individual stitch.

Flannel: woven woollen fabric.

Flat stitches: stitches formed by working the needle alternately in and out of a fabric and thus laying the sewing element flat and straight on first one face and then, depending on the stitch, making a return journey along the same line.

Float: a warp or weft passing unbound over two or more elements of the opposite set.

Floss silk: raw and untwisted silk thread made from the soft external covering of the silkworm’s cocoon. As it is untwisted the threads lie closely and evenly together, making it suitable for long-and-short stitch where the shades must blend in evenly.

Frill: an ornamental edging of woven material, of which one edge is gathered and the other let loose, giving a wavy appearance.

Fringe: an ornamental border or twisted threads, usually the unwoven warp ends remaining at each length of fabric when the textile is removed from the loom and the warp is severed.

Garis miring: category of diagonally slanted batik designs from central Java.

Gauze: a weave in which the binding is achieved by the displacement of warp ends. The resulting fabric is generally (but not always) an open weave.

Gigi barong: pattern of white triangles along the borders of Balinese cepuk cloth.

Glazed: a finishing process that gives a smooth and glossy appearance to a woven cloth through the application of heat, pressure, chemical action, or a glazing medium.

Gringsing: fish-scale pattern. One of the oldest motifs in Javanese batik.

Ground weave: the basic interlacing system of warp and weft sets, which forms the structure or foundation of the finished textile.

Heddle: essential part of the loom used to create the shed openings through which the weft threads are passed.

Hem: to turn in and sew down the edge of a fabric.

Herringbone stitch: a type of crossed stitch in a row with both arms occurring equal length, evenly spaced. The crossed points of the stitches touch each other at top and bottom. It produces horizontal parallel lines of single straight stitches in alternating alignment on the reverse.

Hinggi: Man’s warp-ikat mantle from Sumba.

Hooked Rugs: the best of the old hooked rugs exhibit a fine and patient workmanship, and they are of a time when the making of objects for use was also a means of amusement. The patterns of these older rugs express the designer's own personal interest, whether it was in flowers or animals or other simple subjects. The typical foundation of hooked rugs is burlap or gunny cloth, but they are occasionally found made on a linen cloth foundation. The time of the earliest use of the hooked rug has not been definitely established, but it is believed to have been before the end of the 18th century. Before the middle of the 19th century it had become very popular. The work was attached to a wooden frame which held it tight and smooth while the surface was being covered with the design. Woolen or cotton rags cut in strips and woolen yarn were the materials used. In some rugs the loop top was sheared off, making the surface resemble an Oriental rug.

Ikat: the resist-dyeing process in which designs are reserved in the warp or weft yarns by tying off small bundles of threads with fiber resists to prevent the penetration of dye.

Indigo: the blue-black dye derived from plants of the Indigofera and Marsdenia species, by producing an active precipitate from the reaction of the leaves with an alkaline solution.

Inlaid: carefully cut segments of fabric are set into identically-shaped openings cut out of the ground fabric to form a design. Generally secured by stitching, the inlaid segments may also be secured to a lining fabric by means of adhesives.

Isen: a category of batik background patterns.

Jacquard: an intricate method of weaving invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in the years 1801-4. A head motion at the top of the loom holds and operates a set of punched paper cards, each with a different motif. The punched perforations control the action of one warp end for the passage of one pick. These looms allow for large, complicated designs such as a floral or large geometric. Damasks, brocades, brocatelles and tapestries are all examples of woven jacquards.

Jelamprang: batik and ikat design found all over Indonesia, derived from the eight-petalled lotus patola motif.

Jok: a Lao term for supplementary weft-patterning where the wefts threads of the design are inserted by hand.

Kain: (Indonesia) cloth, generally rectangular, to be wrapped around the body. Often combined with a descriptive word - for example, kain songket, meaning cloth of songket weave.

Kain Limar: Javanese shoulder cloth of weft-ikat woven in Sumatra with a patola-derived pattern.

Kain Panjang: (Indonesia) ‘long cloth’ worn as a waistcloth by both sexes.

Kalamkari: literally "pen-work" or "brush-work", the painted and dyed cotton cloths of India. The process is complex, involving the painting of the mordants and then dyeing in an alizarin-based dye bath to obtain a range of reds, violets, browns and black. Where blue or dark green is required, the cloth is protected by coating it with wax to act as a resist, before a separate dyeing in indigo. Yellows and light greens are painted by hand with less fast local vegetable dyes; dark greens are achieved by over painting yellow on indigo, orange by over-painting yellow on pale red. The kalamkari processes are aided by careful preparation of the cotton cloth to produce a smooth, firm surface, and by the use of fruits and seeds of other plants as astringents in which the cloth is steeped before painting.

Kantha: quilted cover from Bengal, India, and Bangladesh, originally made from layers (usually two) of discarded cloth and rags (often old cotton saris) and embroidered.

Kawung: (Indonesia) category of batik patterns made up of groups of four ovals.

Kemben: (Indonesia) Javanese woman’s breastcloth.

Kemha: Turkish name for a fabric in silk lampas weave with satin weave ground and silk and gilt thread brocading wefts, bound in twill weave.

Kepala: (Indonesia) the "head" of the sarong. A broad perpendicular band of different coloring and patterning to that of the badan, or body of the sarong.

Kesi or k’ossu: Chinese terms for silk slit tapestry weave

Kimkhab: heavy Indian silk fabric brocaded in silk and/or gold with colored silk accents.

Knotted stitches: a looped structure in which the loop (s) are secured by a flat stitch to form a knot. Peking knot and pearl stitch are examples of knotted stitches.

K’ossu or kesi: Chinese terms for silk slit tapestry weave.

Lacis: an ancient needlework technique of embroidering on a ground of knotted netting, or filet. Often executed in cloth or darning stitches, it produces a solid pattern on an open background.

Laid work: a needlework technique for filling large areas with closely laid long stitches attached to the ground fabric only at the ends of the area to be filled. These laid stitches are usually held in place within their span by couching stitches.

Lampas: a figured textile whose pattern is created by a supplementary pattern or brocading weft, held in place by a binding warp, resting upon the ground weave produced by a main warp and ground weft.

Lau: (Indonesia) woman’s tubular skirtcloth from Sumba. Lau hada are decorated with shells and beadwork - lau pahudu with supplementary warp borders.

Linen: made from the fibres of the woody stem of the flax plant. These fibres are stronger and more lustrous than those of cotton. Linen fabrics are very cool and absorbent but wrinkle very easily unless blended with other fibres. Linen is one of the oldest textile fibres.

Lokcan: (Indonesia) batik of Chinese-inspired patterning worked in Shantung silk in the Juana area area of northern Java.

Looped stitch: stitch in which the element is made to deviate from a direct line and held out of line by the next stitch; the process can be described as looping the thread under the needle. Chain, buttonhole, feather, and cable stitch are a few of the stitches in this category.

Luka Semba: (Indonesia) warp-ikat selendang , patterned with patola-derived motifs worn by a clan leader in the Lio district of Flores.

Macrame: a needlework technique of building up a fabric from the knotting and plaiting of rows of vertical threads.

Ma’a: (Indonesia) painted and block-printed cotton ritual textile of the Toraja, south Sulawesi.

Mandala: a visual representation of the universe, portraying Buddhist deities or their symbols in hierarchial order, which is made and used in acts of Buddhist worship.

Manta: Spanish term used in Latin America after the Conquest to describe Indian mantles and webs of cloth.

Metal thread: may be silvered or gold. May be of metal beaten into foil and cut into strips, metal wire, or foil adhered tp paper or an animal substrate.

Mihrab: arched niche in a mosque marking the direction of Mecca.

Minakari: literally "enameled work", the name given to a style of brocade weaving in Rajasthan and central India, where the pattern is brocaded in colored silks on a field filled with weft of silver or silver-gilt thread. Minakari is used chiefly for the borders and end-borders of garment cloths such as saris and orhnis.

Mirror-work: rounds cut from thin mirror glass, often lead-backed, or from mica, and sewn on to the base fabric with a framework of stitches.

Moire: term used to describe textiles to which rippled or watered effect is produced by pressing certain warp rib fabrics in such a way as to flatten parts of the ribs and leave the rest in relief, so that the flattened and unflattened parts reflect the light differently.

Mordant: chemical that fixes the dye on fabric by combining with the dyestuff to form an insoluble compound.

Musabak stitch: a type of composite stitch utilizing single faggot and reversed faggot stitches. The faggot stitch is a counted stitch worked on the diagonal. It is made up of a series of straight flat stitches on the surface, producing a square; generally worked in rows as a filling or in pulled thread work. It produces parallel diagonal rows of straight stitches on the reverse.

Naga: (Indonesia) Chinese-inspired dragon or snake motif.

Natural dyes: dyestuffs obtained from natural pant, animal or mineral substances.

Needlework: general term that encompasses many techniques; employing a needle to embellish a foundation fabric with thread, such as appliqué, laid work, pulled thread, and cut and drawn work.

Openwork: an embroidery style identified by holes or spaces between elements of a fabric either as an integral part of the structure or as a result of accessory stitching. It is produced by a variety of textile-working techniques.

Pagisore: (Indonesia) ‘morning-evening’ batik cloth, slightly longer than the kain panjang. Each half is a different color and design.

Paisley: boteh pattern commonly used on European shawls of the nineteenth century imitating Kashmiri ones, many of which were made in Paisley.

Palampore: a mordant-painted and sometimes barik resist-dye Indian cotton fabric which usually features an elaborate flowering tree on a rocky mound. One genre of chintz.

Palmette: a formalized plant form - flower, leaf, or fruit - cut longitudinally to reveal inner seeds.

Panel: a section of textile or a separate length of fabric.

Parang: (Indonesia) diagonally slanted batik designs. Of the many parang variants the parang rusak (broken knife) is the most famous and most revered.

Passementerie: a term used for trimmings of all descriptions - gold and silver lace, braids, gimp, beaded edgings, tinsel, gold, silver and jet.

Paste-resist: a resist dyeing process in which a thick paste is applied to the surface of the fabric and allowed to harden before the cloth is dyed.

Patchwork: the piecing together of fragments of material to make a patterns. The pieces may be regular or irregular shapes.

Patola: a silk sari woven in Gujarat by the double ikat technique. Traditionally, the Patola is a marriage sari in some communities of Gujarat. Historically, widely traded and widely influential right across Southeast Asia.

Pattern darning: a method of disposing running stitches as a filling to create one or more patterns. It is usually worked by counting warp and weft yarns of the ground fabric.

Patterning warps: a supplementary set of warps that patterns the ground weave.

Patterning and brocaded wefts: supplementary weft sets, in addition to those forming the ground weave, which produce the pattern. Supplementary patterning wefts extend the full width of the fabric and are visible on the face of the weave only as required by the pattern. Supplementary brocading wefts are inserted only in those areas of the weave where patterning is required.

Pelepai: (Indonesia) one to three yards long supplementary-weft ritual cloth from Lampung, southwest Sumatra. Usually decorated with a ‘ship of the dead’ pattern.

Phaa Nung: Thai term for a hip wrapper.

Phaa Puum Kamen: term used in Laos and Cambodia for a long hip wrapper.

Phaa sin: Thai term for a woman’s skirt.

Picotage: a term used to describe a dotted background in block-printed textiles. Achieved by driving nails into the carved wooden block used to print the pattern.

Pigments: coloring agents which stay on the surface of a fabric.

Pile: (1) a surface formed during weaving by supplementary elements that project from the foundation weave. (2) a surface embellishment of projecting threads formed through a needlework technique or a woven foundation.

Plangi: or pelangi (Indonesia) resist-dyeing process commonly known as tie-and-die, whereby areas of the cloth are bound off with dye-resistant fibres prior to dyeing. The resultant pattern is usually of small circles.

Plain weave: the most basic of weaves using a simple alternate lacing of warp and weft yarns. Any type of yarn made from any fibres can be manufactured into a plain weave fabric.

Pori Lonjong: (Indonesia) long warp-ikat textile woven by the Toraja of Sulawesi.

Portiere: curtain hung around or over a doorway.

Prada or perada: (Indonesia) decoration of cloth by the gluing-on of gold leaf or gold dust.

Pua: (Indonesia) large warp ikat or sungkit ritual cloth of the Iban of Sarawak.

Pulled thread work: a needlework technique in which embroidered elements divert threads of the foundation fabric out of their woven alignment by wrapping and tightly pulling sets of warps or wefts together and forming open areas in the foundation fabric.

Quilt: bedcover formed by the process of quilting, that is, by stitching or sewing two layers of cloth together with a soft filling in between the layers. In the process, stitching produces the pattern.

Ramie: a bast fibre, similar to flax which comes from the stalk of a plant grown in China.

Rayon: formerly known as artificial silk, it is not silk at all, although it is made of practically the same elements that the worm consumes in producing silk, namely cellulose. But the silkworm produces an animal fiber, whereas the cellulose fiber is purely a vegetable product. Spruce wood-pulp and cotton supply the major part of the raw material for manufacturing rayon.

Repeat: the measurements of length and width in which a pattern unit is repeated.

Roller printing: a method of surface patterning a fabric with dye transferred to the fabric passed between a wooden cylinder carved or decorated with copper strips and pins, or by an engraved metal cylinder and a pressure roller.

Romanian stitch: a type of self-couching stitch in which the couching thread holds down the first long stitch with long loose slanting stitches on the journey back. Both the couching thread and the couched thread are the same. In appearance, the couching stitch is long on the front face and short on the back face of the fabric.

Rumal: Indian cloth, usually square, used to cover gifts or food.

Running stitch: the most basic stitch, which moves in a straight line, in and out of a fabric, creating floats on each side.

Sainchi Phulkari: type of Indian embroidered hanging, ceremonial cover, or woman’s head covering, from the Punjab and surrounding areas, decorated with scenes of village and domestic life.

Samite: fabric woven with weft-faced compound twill.

Sampler: a small piece of fabric bearing examples of patterns for the purpose of recording these.

Sari: long garment-cloth forming the dress of the woman in many parts of India. The sari is pleated around a tight waist-cord to form a long skirt falling to the ankles; the free end, which is usually decorated, is then draped up over the back to fall gracefully over the head or over one shoulder.

Sarita: (Indonesia) long cotton banners of indigenous rice-paste batik, or of Dutch industrial manufacture, employed for ritual use or for clothing by the Totaja of Sulawesi.

Sarong: (Indonesia) tubular waistcloth.

Sateen: a fabric made from low lustre yarns such as cotton. The fabric has a soft, smooth finish with a gentle sheen.

Satin: fabric made with a satin weave construction, a basic weave characterised by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. Traditional fabric for evening wear and wedding garments. High lustre yarns are used for the weave which also have a low amount of twist. True satin weave fabric always has the warp yarns floating over the weft yarns.

Satin stitch: a type of flat stitch in which simple straight flat stitches are disposed by laying a series of straight stitches parallel and close together on both faces of the ground cloth. Each stitch returns on the reverse of the cloth to a point contiguous to its starting point so that the area is covered on both faces by identical stitches.

Satin weave: a simple float weave requiring a minimum of five warp and weft sets in which warps float over a minimum of four wefts, are never bound by more than one weft, and the diagonal alignment of floats is prevented by maintaining at least one intervening warp between binding points on successive wefts.

Screen printing: a method of surface patterning a fabric by forcing a thick dye through a stretched screen onto which the negative of a design has been transferred. The pattern may be transferred by painting directly onto the screen, cutting and applying a stencil, or using photo-mechanical techniques. The dye paste is applied to the fabric by pushing it through the screen with a squeegee. One screen is required for each color.

Seko mandi: (Indonesia) warp ikat funeral shroud of the Toraja of Sulawesi.

Selendang: (Indonesia) shawl, usually a narrow rectangular cloth worn over the shoulder.

Self-couching: a couching technique in which the same yarn that is used to create the ‘float’ across the surface of the fabric is used on the return pass to tie down the long straight float with a short straight or a long slanting stitch.

Self-patterning ground wefts: wefts belonging to the set that forms the ground or foundation weave, suspending its ground weave interlacing order so as to pattern the weave surface by floating unbound, or by interlacing with a secondary binding warp set in a supplementary interlacing order.

Selimut: (Indonesia) large shawl or mantle.

Selvedges: the vertical, warp edges of a textile; the point at which the wefts turn on the warps.

Semen: (Indonesia) category of figurative batik background patterns.

Seraser: Turkish fabric in weft-faced compound plain weave with silk, silver, and gilt threads.

Shadow work: an embroidery technique producing a muted effect or color, it is always worked from the back in closed herringbone stitch in a strongly-colored thread on to a sheer fabric. From the front of the design appears an outline as a row of back stitches with the color of the closed herringbone stitch softly muted.

Silk: a natural filament produced by the silkworm in the making of it's cocoon. Most silk now collected from cultivated silkworms. The silkworms feed on mulberry leaves. Around 1 kilometre of silk produced from each cocoon which is first placed in boiling water to kill the larvae and soften the filament.

Single-faced satin stitch: a variation of satin stitch which does not cover both faces of the fabric with identical stitches. This stitch was often used to conserve thread, and is also called the surface satin stitch.

Spinning: the process of twisting together and drawing out massed short fibres into a continuous strand.

Sirat: (Indonesia) Iban man’s loincloth.

Slip design: a design drawn on fabric to be embroidered and/or appliquéd onto another surface.

Soga: a brown dye characteristic of central Javanese batik, derived from the bark of the soga tree.

Songket: (Indonesia) cloth patterned with the supplementary weft techniques, where the supplementary wefts , usually of metal thread or silk, differ in material and texture from the ground weft threads.

Staining: a method of coloring small sections of pattern on fabrics after the weaving is completed, by the staining or daubing of dyes, usually of a fugitive nature.

Stitch: one complete movement of an element through a fabric or portion of a fabric structure by means of a needle or some equivalent implement; also, the portion of the element disposed in or on the fabric by such a movement. Simple stitch structures fall into five general categories: flat, looped, knotted, crossed, and composite.

Stump work: an embroidery in which some parts of the pattern appear in high relief, raised by a foundation of wool or cotton wool, with knot-stitch, a method almost exclusively of the Restoration period. It is likely that stump-work was purely an amateur or home art.

Sungkit: (Indonesia) decorative technique in which discontinuous supplementary wefts are worked on a passive warp between two regular wefts.

Supplementary warp: a weaving technique in which an additional set of warp threads is woven into a textile to create a decorative pattern.

Supplementary weft: a weaving technique in which an additional ornamental weft threads is woven into a textile to create a decorative pattern.

Swatch: a sample or specimen of a cloth design.

Synthetic dyes: synthetic chemicals used as dyestuffs. Increasingly available since the first aniline dyes were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century.

Taffeta: crisp, closely-woven cloth of silk or silk-like fibres such as rayon.

Tambal miring: (Indonesia) ‘patchwork’ batik design

Tambour work: a technique by which surface chain stitches are formed with the aid of a hooked needle.

Tapestry weave: weft-faced plainweave, with discontinuous - usually differently-colored - wefts woven back and forth within their own patterning areas.

Tapis: (Indonesia) woman’s sarong from south Sumatra.

Tatibin: (Indonesia) one-yard-long narrow supplementary-weft ritual cloth from Lampung, southwest Sumatra.

Tent stitch: a needlework stitch usually executed on an open, plain weave ground, known as canvas. It is worked in rows moving diagonally over one warp and weft intersection on the face and behind two warps and one weft on the reverse.

Thread: a simple continuous aggregate of fibres that is suitable for textile construction.

Tied Beiderwand: specialized form of tied double weave in which two layers are linked by supplementary binding points called stitched ties.

Tie-dyeing: technique of wrapping or tying fabric before dyeing to create areas that will resist dyes to reserve a pattern.

Tiga Negri: (Indonesia) literally ‘three country’, batik waxed and dyed in thee different areas of Java.

Tritik: (Indonesia) resist process in which designs are reserved by sewing and gathering the cloth before dyeing. Also called stitched resist.

Twill weave: a simple float weave requiring a minimum of three warp and weft sets where warps are bound on successive wefts producing a diagonal alignment of binding points.

Tulis: Indonesian term for hand-drawn batik.

Turkish stitch or triangular two-sided stitch: a type of flat stitch worked by counting warp and weft yarns and diagonal to the ground fabric. The needle always passes over and under the same number of of warp and weft yarns in a diagonal line. On the journey bacj the needle follows the same line and the threads forms slanting stitches.

Turmeric: a fugitive yellow dyestuff obtained from the rhizome of the Curcuma domestica plant

Valance: a hanging drapery for beds, windows, etc.

Vegetable dyes: dyestuffs obtained from naturally-occurring plant material

Velvet: a weave with a woven pile formed by supplementary pile warps, which are raised above the ground weave and over rods introduced during the weaving. The rods are removed after inserting several sheds of weft, which hold the supplementary pile warps in loops above the ground weave. Pile may be cut or uncut.

Warp: in woven fabrics, the yarn running lengthwise and interwoven with the weft yarns.

Warp-faced: a textile in which the warp is predominant and/or conceals the weft on the face of the weave.

Warp ikat: the ikat-resist dyeing process is applied only to the warp threads, to pattern them prior to weaving.

Weaving: the process of making a textile on a loom by interlacing warp and weft threads in a specific order.

Weft: in woven fabrics the filling yarn that runs at right angles to the warp yarn.

Weft ikat: the ikat-resist dyeing process is applied only to the weft threads, to pattern them prior to weaving.

Weft substitution: the exchange of wefts to change color in either the ground or pattern.

White work or German work: a needlework technique in which all embroidered elements and the foundation fabric are white.

Wool: from the fleece of sheep although can also be fleece from alpaca, angora, cashmere goat or vicuna. The fibre made minute overlapping scales which give it a felting property. It is strong and resilient, soft and very warm. It also wicks away moisture. Next to cotton, wool is the most extensively used of all fibers. A pound of the finest wool will yield nearly 100 miles of thread. Although the typical wool is produced by sheep, goat's hair furnishes a long, fine silky material, much used in making beautiful textile fabrics. The angora goat yields mohair, the alpaca goat a fiber known as alpaca, and the wool made from the cashmere (kashmir) goat of India is said to be the most costly of all wools. The fine soft hair of the camel approximates sheep's wool in its structure.

Z- or S-spun: these terms refer to the direction (s) of a single yarns twist.

Japanese

Ai (indigo): blue dye; derived from the indigo plant; various shades achieved by repeated immersions interspersed with periods of drying (allows dye to oxidize and darken); medicinal properties are ascribed to both plant and dye; commonly believed, cloth dyed in indigo will resist insect damage [Attr.]

Aigi: A full-length woman’s kosode worn under a uchikake. Usually patterned with kanoko shibori

Aizome: indigo dying [Attr.]

Ajiro: Fabric woven with shaved bamboo or cypress trees.

Akane: dye color derived from madder root [Rubia cordifolia]; produces a deep, 'lipstick' red tint [trad.]

Akigusa or akikusa: ("autumn flowers and grasses"): classic motif consisting of various selections of flowers and autumn grasses; traditionally includes hagi (bush clover), kiku (chrysanthemum), susuki (pampas grass), kikyo (Chinese bellflower), but others may be added; frequently used to decorate lacquer, textiles, and porcelain [AoJ,v.1,pg.90,91+137]

Aobana : Pale blue tracing liquid extracted from a particular variety of the tsuyukusa plant (Commelina communis) that washes off easily in water and is used for drawing designs on to the fabric in Yuzen dyeing and tie-dyeing.

Arare (hailstone): pattern of small, evenly spaced squares, arranged in checker board fashion; alternately called ishi-datami when used on court fabrics; [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Asa: is term to describe bast fibers, meaning a fiber taken from plants, and also including ramie, hemp, jute and linen. Asa fibers were lightly spun or twisted into threads that were easy to weave, dye and pattern.

Asanoha (hemp leaf): motif based upon the leaf of the hemp plant; arranged as a repeated, six-pointed star pattern; frequently used on female clothing (especially during the Taisho era) [trad.]

Ashide: originally a loose, flowing style of calligraphy used in landscapes and resembling scenic elements such as rocks, reeds, water, trees, and such; now, any style of design that employs calligraphy in this fashion [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Atozome: refers to fabric that is decorated after weaving. In post-dyeing, fabrics are dyed after they are woven. Yuzen dyeing, komon (small pattern dyeing) and shiborizome (tie-dyeing) are examples of atozome.

Atsuita: stiff compound weave that combines a twill ground with plain weave patterns in multi-colored threads; presently used for No' costumes exclusively [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Aya: any solid color, twill-woven fabric; often used in conjunction with more elaborate textured weaves [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Aya-ori: twill weave. The weft yarn crosses over or under three or more warp yarns in twill weaves. The point where the weft and warp cross is called the soshikiten, or structure point. In a twill weave the structure point floats successively to create a diagonal pattern on the surface of the fabric.

Bane: medallion motif used on textiles and dance costumes during the Heian period [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Basho-: banana [Musa liukiuensis] ; fiber of the inner leaf sheath; when stripped and braided used as thread; superceded asa as most common fiber in Okinawa [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg.41]

Benibana: safflower [Carthamus tinctorius] and the color derived from its' petals after many dippings; tint can range from pink to scarlet; very fugitive to sunlight [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg.25]

Bingata : polychrome textiles dyed with stencils against a red or yellow ground; originated in the Ryukyu Island (principally Okinawa), where is was reserved for the nobility; complex designs typically organized in parallel registers; pastels traditionally favored. Red sets the tone for the more colorful Bingata designs, while deep blue patterns provide a cooler feel.

Bokashi: shading or blending of color or ink, typically of yuzen dyeing and tsujigahana.

Bozugappa (priest cape): hip-length, semi-circular cape with shallow stand-up collar; formed from two layers of cloth (usually cotton) with inner layer of water proof paper; modeled after capes worn by Jesuits of the 17th century. [Trad.]

Bugaku: form of dance pantomime, based upon T'ang dynasty traditions; masked and unmasked roles form the model for noh; preserved by the Imperial court since the Heian period [trad.]

Chayatsuji/zome: bleached, hemp or ramie cloth, that is dyed with indigo by means of rice-paste resist techniques; characterized by small, fine-lined elements; landscape scenes are typical and sometimes ornamented with embroidery; generally prefered for summer wear, by women of the samurai class during the Edo period [AoJ,v.1,pg.107,137]

Chayazome: summer kimono made of ramie and created by special tsutsugaki technique; worn by high-ranking samurai women.

Chijimi: Formally called Omeshi Chirimen, which is pre-dyed fabric with fine wrinkles on its surface. The wrinkles come out with strongly twisted silk weft threads.

Chirashimoyo (scattered motifs): style of decoration featuring motifs randomly scattered (apparently); yet with a well-balanced and overall composition [JCaTA,pg.125-131]

Chirimen: A plain weave silk crepe fabric. The warp is untwisted, unglossed thread and the weft is highly twisted, unglossed thread. These twisted threads are then starched to retain the twist while weaving. After weaving, the starch is washed out of the fabric, allowing the twist in the wefts to be released, creating a fabric with a crinkled surface. Favored ground for Yuzen dyeing.

Choken: open-front coat used mainly for female Noh roles with double-wide sleeves; loosely closed with cord ties.

Choma: ramie [Boehmeria nivea]; leaf fiber used in folk textiles; [BtTB, Cort, pg.38]

Chugata : literally, 'middle size pattern', this refers to stencil dyeing using stencils with patterns larger than komon. The term is nowadays used synonymously with yukata or summer kimono. Resist rice paste is applied by stencil to both sides of the fabric prior to dip-dyeing.

Chuya-Obi: A reversible Obi with contrasting patterns on each face. Literally, "Chuya" means night and day. As early Chuya-Obi had black side and patterned side, it is compared to dark night and bright day time.

Daimyo (great name): colloquial term for a clan leader; technically, one who held an estate producing 10,000+ koku (50,000 bushels of rice) per annum and was directly subject to the Shogun at the time of Tokugawa Ieyasu's death [HoJ,v.3,pg.___].

Dandarazome: style of kosode decoration consisting of dramatically-colored stripes that are dyed rather than woven; popularized by Mizuki Tatsunosuke, a Kabuki actor [JCaTA,pg.40]

Dangawari: a type of kosode that is decorated in large check or plaid pattern; with or without floral motifs [JCaTA, il.9,13]

Dobuku or Dofuko: A man’s outer coat, worn by the upper echelon of the warrior class from the fourteenth to the early seventeenth century. It was the forerunner of the present day haori.

Donsu: damask weave with isolated motifs on a satin ground; particularly in emulation of Ming dynasty styles [trad.]

Eboshi: style of peaked cap worn by the bushi class; usually made of braided, and lacquered fiber or horesehair [trad.]

Edokomon: variety of small-figured, densely repeated, textile pattern, created by means of resist stenciling; characteristic style from Edo; often favored by the samurai class for formal wear [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Edoyuzen: style of decoration that sparingly employs yuzen techniques; named after Edo (now Tokyo) and reflects the sober taste of the Shogun's court. Edo-yuzen is characterized by its pale colour and patterns painted only on the front side.

Egasuri (picture kasuri): style of kasuri pattern featuring naturalistic motifs; often combined with geometric ones as well [trad.]

Eigata: resist-dyed fabric in traditional Okinawan style; similar to bingata, but features an indigo, either as the ground or in the motifs, and characterized by a pale color palette [trad.]

Emoyo: "pictorial design"., as opposed to geometric or abstract patterns.

Enuki : a patterning technique in which coloured wefts are used in addition to the warp and weft threads of the woven ground.

Fuji: wisteria [Wistaria chinensis]; also, bast fiber favored for fabrics that require durability in water [BtTB; Cort, pg.38]

Fuki: an addition or extension of the hemline of a kosode, especially the uchikake. It is a roll of padding covered by the lining that both weights the garment, thereby controlling the fall of the skirt, and protects the expensive fabric of the kosode from soil and wear.

Fukuro obi (bag sash): In it’s original form, the fukuro obi was woven as a tube, however, more recently it is constructed of two pieces sewn separately and sewn together. They are patterned fully or 60% on one side with the reverse side usually blank. Appropriate for formal and semiformal occasions.

Fukusa: An embroidered, dyed or painted square fabric cover with a lining that is laid over a gift when presented by the giver.

Funabashi (boat bridge): a landscape motif, consisting of a curved bridges and punted skiffs; a popular motif in the Edo period [AoJ,v.1,pg.108]

Furisode: Literally meaning "swinging or waving sleeves". A long-sleeved heavily patterned variation of the kosode worn by children and unmarried women on special occasions. Waving the sleeve was thought to attract a husband.

Furoshiki: wrapping cloth: square cloth used for wrapping, storing and carrying objects.

Fusenryo (floating line): originally, a type of plain twill fabric with designs created by an over-weave of loose threads; now designates, a pattern of large medallions, which was a common motif for those fabrics [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Futonji: bedding cover.

Gagaku: style of theatrical performance that combines Bugaku and Gigaku arts; based upon T'ang dynasty traditions; adopted by Imperial court as the basis for court ceremonial entertainment [trad.]

Genjiko: geometric motifs associated with the 54 chapters of the Genjimonogatari; originally markers used in an incense game (Ko' awase); often used for textile decoration and on porcelains [trad.]

Gigaku: style of orchestral music extant in Japan; based upon T'ang dynasty traditions and preserved by the Imperial court; forms the basis for Gagaku performances [trad.]

Ginran: twill silk fabric with decorative motifs woven in silver thread; first introduced to Japan during Ming dynasty [JCaTA,pg.143,44]

Gojiru : soy bean extract, a milky liquid made by grinding soy beans that stabilizes the colours of dyes and pigments and prevents blurring.

Goshotoki (palace motifs): repertoire of design motifs favored in Shogun's household [JCaTZ, pg.90]

Goshuden (palace style): restrained style characterized by small motifs; stressed dignified effects; emulates yusoku style; constitutes yabo taste: thought staid by urban class [JCaTA, pg. 87-90]

Gotenjo: style of decoration; resembles coffered ceilings, commonly seen in shrines and temples; especially if floral motifs are set in a square grid [trad.]

Habutae: smooth, glossy, and tight, plain weave silk; resembles taffeta; first produced at Nishijin (Kyoto) from the Momoyama period onward [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Hagi (bush clover): one element of the akigusa motif; plant has glossy oval leaves and fine purple flower heads [AoJ,v.1,pg.69]

Hakama: since the Heian period, pleated, loose, overtrouser, put on after the

kosode now, largely reduced to just a pleated skirt without interior division; largely used in men's formal dress; types include hanbakama, hangire, nagabakama, Sendaibakama, or umanori; length and fit dependent upon intended activities such as kendo (fencing) or kyudo (archery).

Hakata obi: single layered, tightly woven obi; characterized by thick weft threads and stiff, tight weave; originated in Hakata [trad.]

Hakkake: hem of the lining of kimono. Usually, the colour for hakkake is bright and selected to match the color of Kimono. It is also called suso-mawashi. The colour and design of hakkake appears and disappears while walking, which looks elegant and fashionable

Hanabishi (flower diamond): diamond-shaped floral motif consisting of four petals with foliate edges; frequently placed in a geometric lattice of hexagons or rhombuses [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Hanaguruma (flower cart): decorative motif featuring a two-wheeled cart with yoke (modeled after Heian period ox-carts) and flowers (often arranged in a large basket or vase) [trad.]

Hanbakama: ankle-length hakama consisting of both a pleated front and separate back portion that are joined at the outer leg seams; marked by even hemline and no interior separation [trad.]

Hangire: form of very full hakama with elaborate woven designs and gathered at the ankles.

Hanhaba obi: a kind of Obi that is half the width of other Obi. You can wear Hanhaba-Obi more casually with Yukata and other Kimonos.

Haori ("to put on"): A short, kimono-style jacket worn over the kimono. The front is left open rather than overlapped and is tied with silk cords. Originally worn by men only. Women allowed to wear after Meiji-era, and became all the rage in Taisho period (1912-1926). Men's haori often have unique pictures, woven, painted or printed on their linings.

Happi: unlined, half-length, open-front coat, with full-length collar; typically, sleeves are close-fitting [trad.]

Harite: wooden bars used to stretch bolt of kimono cloth.

Heko obi: sash of loosely woven fabric; usually three meters in length for adults; often decorated with shibori designs; can be worn by both genders in casual settings, but most often my males and children with yukata [trad.]

Hi : shuttle, a boat-shaped piece of equipment made of wood, sometimes with metal components, that is used to pass the weft thread between the warps. The weft thread is wound around a tube in the open centre of the shuttle.

Hikizome: A technique in which dye or pigment is applied to fabric by brush, as opposed to immersion dyeing. Used in yuzen dyeing.

Hikeshi Hanten: a thick fireman’s jacket

Hingatabon: pattern books for kosode designs; first circulated in 17th century as means of ordering custom work [K:FC,pg.271-321]

Hiogi: folding fan made from cypress splints; an accessory of Heian period court dress; a common motif for textiles [trad.]

Hiraori: or plain weaving, in which the warp threads and weft threads cross each other alternately. Plain weave fabrics are sturdy and hard-wearing, and are ideally suited for use as everyday wear or work clothes.

Hirosode (wide sleeve): wide in this context is measured along the cuff opening; in contrast to the kosode, the cuff is left open [JCaTA,pg.13]

Hitoe: Literally "one layer". Hitoe used as a noun is a name for the unlined silk summer kimono. As an adjective, hitoe is used to describe a single-layered garment such as an unlined kariginu.

Hitokoshi-Chirimen: A kind of Chirimen, crepe silk. This is characterized by its small and minute wrinkle. This crepe silk is flat and very firm.

Hitotsumi: long Kimono for infants.

Hiyokujitate: tailoring technique; simulates additional layers by permanently attaching extra interior sleeves or collars [trad.]

Ho: open-front coat; worn by male courtiers with double-width sleeves; often in combination with hangire when used for Noh performances.

Hoju: Buddhist pearl that is shaped like a peach; it has a rounded form with a pointed top and may be ringed with a flaming aura. One of the auspicious Collection of Treasures motifs.

Homongi:’Homon’ means `to visit' and `gi' is a `wear'. It's a formal wear both married and unmarried women. It can be worn at the parties or when calling on somebody. It's characterized by colorful designs running continuously over the seams. The length of the sleeves varies, unmarried women wear with longer sleeves. Homongi is usually worn with the double-folded(fukuro) obi with matching obi-age(bustle sash) and obijime(a tyeing cord).

Horaisan [Ho-rai : mountain]: mythical mountain where Taoist immortals were said to dwell; often depicted as a island capped by a lone peak; derived from the Chinese name P'eng-lai Shan [AoJ,v.1,pg.138]

Hosoge: floral motif frequently used in Buddhist ornamentation, which features an imaginary flower of even-numbered petals; perhaps originally based upon the peony [AoJ,v.1,pg.40-44]

Ichimatsu: checkerboard pattern in light and dark colors; largely popularized in the Edo period (1741) by Sanogawa Ichimatsu, an Osaka actor [JCaTA,pg.40]

Igeta: decorative motif consisting of two sets of parallel beams, criss-crossed and enclosing a diamond; form represents drinking well as seen in isometric perspective; frequently used as kasuri motif [trad.]

Iki (pure, unadulterated): chic, up to date; a standard of taste that favored sophisticated simplicity; established in opposition to yabo; applied especially to personal dress [JCaTA,pg.87-92]

Inkin: gold stamped gauze weave; originally a Ming import; usually small motifs.

Irotomesode: a formal kimono same as kurotomesode but the base is not black but beautiful light colors. It's the second most formal kimono for married women. It also has five family crests and have more festive air and worn at formal parties or gatherings.

Ishidatami (paving stone): checkerboard pattern originally derived from stone paving in Chinese palaces; similar to ichimatsu but often laid on a diagonal and without color contrasts [AoJ,v.1,pg.138]

Itajime: A dyeing technique similar to that used in the Nara period to make kyokechi resist dyed textiles that involves clamping yarns or lengths of fabric between wooden boards, usually used in groups of 10-20, that have been carved with decorative motifs. When the dye is poured on the clamped areas remain white.

Jinken: an artificial fiber similar to dacron-polyester

Jinboari: sleeveless half-coat worn by warriors on the battlefield. Jinbaori patterns were often designed to show off a warriors military power.

Jiire: Sizing of the fabric prior to dyeing with gojiru, seaweed glue or water to prevent blotching and to ensure an even take up of the dye.

Jofu: superior grade of plain-weave hemp [Cannabis sativa]or linen cloth; especially favored for summer wear by the samurai class; see katabira; later applied to summer weight fabrics that have a similar texture (even silk) [BtTB, Nagasaki, pg.17]

Junihitoe (12 unlined): colloquially, the term applied to a 12 layered form of dress for court women, which originated in the Heian period; actual number of layers varied with time; sometimes as many as 15 or as few as nine; [JCaTA,pg.14]

Jomon: pattern produced by shaping clay vessels with a paddle or stick wrapped with twisted cord; the pottery and period derive their names from this technique [AoJ,v.1,pg.138]

Juban: undergarment worn beneath the kimono; it’s construction is similar to that of the kimono. Traditionally the patterns and colors are bold. Naga-juban are ankle length, and han-juban are hip length.

Kagayuzen: style of decoration employing yuzen technique; motifs and compositions reflect a more exuberant taste developed in Kaga (present Ishikawa); especially when persimmon red is used; also Kagazome [trad.]

Kakeshita: name for the kimono worn under the uchikake during a wedding ceremony.

Kaketsugi: mending technique. To sew a torn part to hide the seam.

Kakie: a technique that involves drawing designs with dyes or pigments directly on to the fabric with a brush without the use of resist protection.

Kaki-e: Hand-painting on fabric, usually with sumi ink. The best-known example is the use of kaki-e in tsujigahana textiles.

Kaku obi: stiff, single-layer obi some 4-5 inches in width; mostly worn by adult males, but sometimes also by adult females [trad.]

Kakuregasa: magic "hiding hat", one of the auspicious Collection of treasures motifs.

Kakuremino: magic "hiding cape", one of the auspicious Collection of Treasures motifs.

Kamiko: treated paper (usually made from mulberry fiber); used as fabric for clothing [BtTB, Nagasaki, pg.17-19]

Kanebukuro: "money bag", one of the auspicious Collection of Treasures motifs.

Kanoko (fawn): tie-dye technique; named for its' resemblance to the spotting on a fawn's coat [trad.]

Kanoko-Shibori: One of the tie-dyed techniques. The pattern looks like dots on the back of deer. Kanoko literally means infant deer.

Kappa (cape): specifically, thigh-length traveling cape; semi-circular form, with shallow stand-up collar; usually double layer of cotton fabric with waterproof paper sandwiched between [Trad.]

Karakusa: Literally "Chinese grasses". A design of curving tendrils, sometimes with leaves and flowers, introduced into Japan from Tang dynasty China in the eighth century. "Arabesque", another translation of karakusa, is an inaccurate description of these textile designs. Unfortunately, it was chosen rather than "foliage" or "scroll work", two other meanings of karakusa.

Karaori (Chinese weave): compound weave, with satin designs on a twill ground; highly embellished with multiple colors and gold; now largely used exclusively in Noh drama [AoJ,v.1,pg.138]

kari+ginu: short over-jacket; with round collar closure and drawstring duffs; often used for No- male roles [trad.]

Kariyasu: yellow tint obtained from miscanthus grass [Miscanthus tinctorius]; [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg. 27]

Kasanegi (multi-layered wear): style of dress that derives it effect from the contrast of many layers of single-colored garments.

kasuri: technique for creating patterns in fabric by selectively dying warp and/or weft threads before weaving them together; pattern edges are often blurred due to inexact registration of the threads; geometric figures in white and indigo are most common, with the most popular being cross and parallel cross designs; also applied to fabrics that employ this technique; see also egasuri [AoJ,v.1,pg138]; [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg.57-74]

Katabira: unlined summer kosode made of fine hemp cloth; often yuzen-dyed,and embellished with embroidery. The katabiri was often decorated with patterns that give a "cool" feeling, such as flowing water or snow.

Kataginu: stiff, sleeveless jacket or jumper worn as a costume in Kyogen drama [AoJ,v.1,pg.109,114]; similar in form to the upper half of the kamishimo

Katamigawari (half-and-half): style of garment in which the halves are made from different fabrics or designs; sleeves may be alternated as well [AoJ,v.1,138]

Katasuso (shoulder and hem): style of decoration for kosode confined to the shoulders and hem; often done in embroidery [JCaTA,pg.119]

Katazome (stencil dying): dye technique; starch resist process applied with paper stencils; one paper stencil per color required. Often dip-dyed, but sometimes dye is applied by brush or thickened and applied by tube. Stencil dyeing is well suited for mass production, while the designs, made by repetition of the patterning process, have a uniquely rhythmical beauty that has been cherished by people in all parts of Japan since ancient times. Bingati is the bright, polychrome katazome developed in Okinawa.

Kesa: rectangular or trapezoidal stole worn by Buddhist priests; often paired with an ohi of similar design; is draped under the right arm and cinched over the left shoulder with cords; styles vary according to sect. Kesa are often made of patchwork to suggest the patched clothing of the poor

Kicho: curtain: standing curtain used to partition rooms or to block the wind.

Kihada: yellow tint derived from the bark of Amur cork tree [Phellodendron amurense]; [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg. 27]

Kikko: "tortoise shell"; hexagonal motif used as an allover pattern or as a single unit. Has felicitous connotations because the tortoise symbolizes longevity.

Kimono: literally "the thing worn". Originally, to the Japanese kimono meant simply "clothing", but today kimono sometimes is used often as a generic term for all types of kosode and as the name for any contemporary garment that in any way resembles the kosode. However, the contemporary wearer of these garments uses the proper Japanese name for each garment. Kosode, not kimono, is the generic term used when referring to the kimono-like garments worn in earlier periods.

Kinran: twill silk fabric; decorative motifs are woven in gold thread; introduced to Japan during Ming dynasty [JCaTA,pg.143,44]

Kinsha: fine grade of chirimen [trad.]

Kinsai-Yuzen: developed from Yuzen-zome. Gilt technique with gold and silver

Kinsya: High quality silk-gauze woven with foil, gold and silk threads. As it is thin and light, it is used for summer wear.

Kintoshi: silk fabric woven with gold threads.

Kirihame: decorative fabric inserts or applique; formerly known as zogan [JCaTA,pg.157]

Kiri hoo: combined paulownia and phoenix motif.

Kissyo-Ka: auspicious flowers such as chrysanthemum, peony, plum flower, Paulson and others

Kofurisode: Short-sleeved furisode. The length of the sleeves is about 30 inches.

Kogin: dense geometric patterned embroidery on work clothing.

Komainu: guardian dog, a mythical lion-like beast that repels evil.

Komanui: Couching. Colored, gold, and silver threads that are too thick to pass through the eye of a needle are laid along the underdrawing and couched by another thin silk thread.

Komon: fine overall pattern; usually resist dyed; favored by samurai for formal wear [trad.]

Koshimaki (hip wrap): style of wear characterized by belting only the lower half of kosode at the waist and allowing the upper half to drape freely; also kosode of stiff brocade designed for this style [trad.]

Kosode: literally "small sleeves". The kosode is the forerunner to the modern kimono worn by married women. In the Heian period, it was worn as an undergarment by both men and women of the court nobility. Later it became the outer garment for all the classes. The "small sleeves" referred originally to the small opening for the wrist, which distinguished the kosode from the "osode", "large sleeves", in which the wrist opening was the full length of the sleeve. In modern times, "kosode" also have "small sleeves" in the sense that that they are shorter than those of the furisode.

Kotobuki: ideogram meaning "long life" and "prosperity"; often used on textiles and porcelain [trad.]

Kozo: mulberry [Broussonetia; bast fiber used for paper; paper used either as fabric or woven with other fibers [BtTB, Cort, pg.38]

Kuchinashi: yellow tint derived from gardenia hulls [Gardenia jasminoides]; [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg. 27]

Kuro: black tint derived from initial immersion in brown (usually derived from native acorns), followed by application of iron mordant; [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg. 27]

Kuro Montsuki Haori: formal black crested haori

Kurotomesode (black tomesode): formal kimono characterized by narrow cuffs and black ground; decorated with appropriate motifs in yuzenzome; worn by the mother and female relatives of the principals when attending weddings; by contrast, invited female guests wear the irotomesode [trad.]

Kusakizome: dyeing using plant extracts.

Kyogen: Literally "wild words". An interlude of light social comedy or parody between two Noh plays in which the actors use ordinary speech or a dialect and do not wear masks. There is no musical accompaniment.

Maiginu (dance robe): garment, based upon court dress; generally used for female dance roles in Noh performances [trad.]

Maiwai: fisherman’s ceremonial jacket.

Mame shibori: style of tie dying; said to resemble bean (mame) shape but split by a resisted line [trad.]

Maru obi: obi made from double-wide fabric, which is folded lengthwise, and hemmed at the selvages; always fully patterned; usually decorated in small, repeated motifs; often in multiple colors; typically the most formal obi worn by women [trad.]

Matsukawabishi: "pine bark lozenge", a geometric motif of three superimposed diamond forms used as an allover repeating pattern as well as a single unit.

Matsuinui: An embroidery technique for rendering lines. The curved stitch follows upward the lines of the underdrawing and the width of the lines are varied by the layers of the stitch.

Mawata: The silk wadding processed from the cocoons that have been pierced as the moth emerged from the cocoon. The thread cannot be reeled as a continuous filament from a pierced cocoon, but the cocoon can be stretched into a fairly large, flat, thin square of wadding.

Meibutsugire: Fabrics imported from abroad during the 13th-16th century preserved in shrines, temples and the collections of daimyo families, they were highly prized and often used in the mountings of hanging scrolls or made into bags for tea ceremony utensils.

Meisen: plain weave fabric; commonly used for everyday wear [trad.]

meisen : a woven fabric that has had both warp and weft threads resisted and dyed prior to the final set up of the loom and weaving, so as to produce a preplanned design. The meisen style silk kimono was the most popular garment at the beginning of the Showa era, and was mainly produced between 1910 and 1960. Meisen garments were casual wear for wealthy Japanese but a fine cloth for ordinary people. The technique is related to earlier methods kasuri (ikat), in which threads are resisted before dyeing and weaving, and e-gasuri ("picture-ikat"), a Japanese innovation in which threads are resisted, rather than direct-dyed, with the use of a stencil. The silk used in meisen fabrics was made from broken cocoon filaments and silk thread

Meyui: tie-dyed motif of hollow squares, formalized into a checkerboard pattern arranged on a diagonal; commonly used as a mon [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

michi+yuki (rain+snow): 3/4 overcoat, usually worn by women; conforms to the kimono worn underneath and unlike the haori has a square collar that is closed with cords. [trad.]

Mingei: Japanese folk crafts.

Miyamairi: ceremonial kimono draped over a one-month old infant when first presented at ancestral Shinto shrine; usually styled like furisode but reduced; decorated with auspicious themes or motifs; mostly for boys.

Mizugoro+mo: over-garment for male Noh roles

mofuku: formal style of mourning dress with five mon (family crests) worn by both genders; characterized by plain black color and lack of ornamentation; complemented by black tabi [trad.]

Mojiri-ori: or gauze weaving, in which the warps are twisted together to create open-structured fabrics such as sha, ro and ra gauzes.

Mokume shibori (wood-grain): process of resist dying; parallel rows of basting stitches compress fabric into furrows and ridges; only exposed edge of shirred fabric receives dye solution; simulates the parallel lines of tree ring growth [trad.]

Omen: cotton. Omen spread in the East from its origin in South East Asia slowly. The earliest piece of imported cotton found in Japan dates from the 7th century however it was not until the 16th century that an adequate location to grow cotton was found in Japan, since the plant is semitropical and the Japanese climate was poorly suited for its cultivation. The introduction of cotton in the Edo period revolutionized textile products for commoners and was much more comfortable than bast fibers.

mon or kamon(Crests): a stylized, circular family crest displayed on certain Japanese clothing and used to identify family. handed down through the generations. It began as a heraldic emblem in the Heian period. Soon each noble family, the "daimyo", began to adopt a specific crest. In the feudal period, samurai families adopted a mon to identify members of their clan during battles. After the Meiji restoration, the common people were permitted to use a family mon. Most mon designs are based either on flowers or geometrical designs. However, a few are based on the animals of the zodiac, birds, or butterflies. The mon design is dyed or woven at the back neck and top center of front and back of sleeves of the most formal black kimono (sometimes called a "five-mon kimono"). Slightly less formal are three-mon kimono with mon at the back neck and the top center back of sleeves. Formal haori and other kimono may have a single mon at the back neck.

Murasaki: purple tint derived from gromwell [Lithospermum crythrorhizon] plant root; originally, a luxury import from China; also termed shikon; [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg. 27]

Nagoya obi: a post-Meiji type of obi made from and extra long, standard width fabric; trailing end made by folding last few yards back upon itself then seaming the selvages; the plain remainder is folded in half, lengthwise and seamed all the way to the end; narrow portion is wrapped closest to the body [trad.]

Naga hakama (long+hakama): a type of hakama worn exclusively indoors; during Heian Period, always red in color and worn by females with a white kosode as underlayer for more decorative and elaborate garments; in Edo Period most frequently worn at the Shogun's court on the most formal of occasions by daimyo[trad.]

Nambam (southern barbarian): the term originally applied to Portuguese and Dutch traders, who first arrived in Japan during the 16th century; by extension, any European; also motifs that either feature European figures or artifacts [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

Nanago: satin. A variation of hira-ori (plain weave) with a set of two warps and two wefts. The fine stone pavement pattern resembles fish eggs, after which the weave is named.

Nanten: [Nandina domestica]; traditional motif modeled on the shrub of the same name; especially noted for its' red berries [trad.]

Neriginu: type of glossed silk first produced at Nishijin in the Momoyama period [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

Nerinuki: A plain weave (hira-ori) of unglossed silk (kiito) warps and glossed silk (neriito) wefts. It has a distinctive tension and luster and is favored in "tsujigahana" designs. It lost it’s popularity after rinzu appeared.

Nindo: honeysuckle [Lonicera sempervirens]; motif introduced from Korea; most popular during the Asuka and Nara periods; often organized as a palmette [AoJ,v.1,pg.20-24]

Nishiki: compound weaves with decorative warp and weft threads; usually on plain or twill ground; also indicates any highly coloful pattern; colloquially known as "brocade" [trad.]

Nishi+jin (West camp): Kyoto district famed since the sixteenth for its' textile production; established in the Kamakura period to encourage the development of weaving and sericulture in Japan [trad.]

Noh: form of theatrical performance; developed and patronized by the military class in the Kamakura period; an out-growth of court Bugaku and Gagaku traditions [JCaTA,pg.53, 54]

Nobori: banner.

Noren: entry curtain. Split into two or more segments, and hung over a doorway.

Norikake-nui: restitching undertaken in order to hold down long floats.

Noshi: bundle of abalone strips or paper used as an ornament for auspicious occasions; a decorative motif that represents same. Originally a "noshi" was a bundle of thin strips of dried abalone placed on a gift. Later it became a bundle of colourful bands of cloth tied in an ornamental knot. Then it became a piece of folded paper, "origami", in which was inserted a strip of dries abalone. If the abalone is replaced by flowers, it is called "hanonoshi"

Noshime: robe of kosode form with wide lapels; used as a basic garment for commoner dress in Noh performances; also used in conjunction with other garments for major roles [trad.]

Nuihaku: A combined technique of embroidery and "surihaku" (applied metallic leaf). Also refers to Noh robes decorated with this technique.

Nuikiri: Also called hiranui. An embroidery technique in which comparatively small-sized motifs are freely rendered in satin stitch regardless of the warp or weft structure of the weave. This is the most common technique for depicting a flat surface.

Nume: unfigured satin. The ground is of a thin satin structure with a smooth, lustrous surface.

Nyoihoju: "wish-come-true pearl", one of the auspicious Collection of Treasures motifs.

Obi (sash/belt): essentially a wrap-around sash, which keeps the front of the kimono closed; comes in many types and styles; all differentiated by gender, age, marital status, and occasion; some types are: chuya, fukuro, heko, hanhaba, kaku, maru, Nagoya, tsuke, Hakata

Obiage: long crepe shibori fabric used with the obi. It helps secure the obi bow and just peeks out in front at the top of the obi.

Obijime: long cord tied outside the obi for decoration.

Ohi: rectangular Buddhist vestment draped over left forearm; usually worn en suite with kesa, which it matches in form and fabrics; sometimes simulated by folded extension at left edge [trad.]

Ohyo: bast fiber of the elm [Ulmus]; primarily used by Ainu for clothing; does not readily hold dyes; often original yellow-brown fiber color remains untreated [BtTB, Cort, pg.42]

Omeshi: tightly woven plain weave; made with hand-twisted, dyed thread with a firm texture [trad.] Omeshi garments were popular throughout the Showa era, especially during the 1950’s.

Orinui shibori: tie-dye technique; characterized by offset patches of resisted fabric flanking a common dyed line; gives the appearance of clenched teeth; created by shirring fabric between two parallel lines of basting stitches [trad.]

Osa : reed, a comb-like frame consisting of thin strips of bamboo which is used to separate the warps and to beat the weft against the previously woven area of the cloth. Metal reeds are more common than bamboo reeds today.

Oshima tsumugi: variety of silk fabric made with hand twisted threads from Amami Island (Kagoshima); often dyed in kasuri technique with local earths; said to be long-wearing [trad.]

Ramie: the fine bast fiber used to weave delicate fabrics.

Rinzu: A self-patterned satin weave where the pattern is produced by the juxtaposition of the warp and weft faces of the weave. It is woven with the sericin still in the warps and wefts and is degummed (glossed) and dyed after being woven. Usually rinzu is woven in 4/1 or 7/1 warp-faced satin for the ground weave and ¼ or 1/7 weft-faced satin weave for the patterning. The fabric is reversible. The scheme of the patterning of rinzu differs from the other satin damask weave, donsu, in that rinzu has a more equal balance between the amount of space allotted to the ground weave and that occupied by the patterning.

Ro: Gauze weave alternating with plain weave. A warp yarn crosses three, five, or seven weft yarns in the plain weave, and the two warp yarns are twisted. Softer and more pliable than sha (gauze weave), ro was popular for summer kosode during the Edo period and remains in use today.

Roketsuzome: technique of hand-applied wax-resist dying; characterized by small, broken lines where resist has cracked and allowed dye to seep in; known in Nara period [trad.]

Rokuyo (six rings): motif of five rings aranged around a larger sixth; derived from Indian mythology; frequently used in family mon [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

Ryozuma: a style of decorative composition found on tomesode; in vogue from late Meiji/early Taisho eras; characterized by a symmetrical repeat of motifs on the both lapels, which produces a single pyramidal image from lower-thigh to the hem [trad.]

Sakioro: "tear and weave", a recycled weaving made of torn strips of used textiles.

Sakizome : refers to fabric that has been woven with dyed threads. Dyeing can be divided into pre-dyeing (sakizome) and post-dyeing (atozome). In pre-dyeing, yarn is dyed before being woven into fabric. Patterned weaves, pongee (tsumugi) and ikat patterns are examples of sakizome.

Saganishiki (Saga brocade): a plain or compound weave with gilt or silvered paper for the warp and multiple colored silk wefts; because of the delicate warp, consumate skill and labor is required to produce only a few inches per day; presumably originated in Saga-ken [trad.]

Same komon (stingray skin ko+mon): reserve pattern of dots; arranged in concentric arcs or scattered randomly; usually produced by means of resist stenciling; said to resemble sting ray skin [trad.]

Sarasa: One of the Kimono patterns on fine quality cottons. It has colorful patterns of human, plants, or other creatures (sometimes with mythical creatures). There are two ways of painting the sarasa pattern. One is to paint directly on the cotton, the other is to use a stencil.

Sashiko: traditional form of quilting technique used to improve the warmth and durability of garments; employs thick cotton thread in lines of running stitches; originally used to patch and extend the life of clothing; later used a prior to decoration as well as improve fabric by this means (especially fireman's protective clothing); regional varieties abound; [BtTb, Shaver, pg.45]

Sashinui: Long-and-short stitch. The inside of a motif is divided into several areas, which are then stitched from the outlines of each area toward the center of the motif in alternating long and short stitches. Used in realistic depictions or for a projected effect such as animal hair, and petals.

Saya: light monochrome figured silk with pattern in twill weave.

Sayagata: repeated maze pattern based upon swastika [trad.]

Seikaiha: Literally "blue ocean wave"; an imbicate scallop or shell pattern considered to be a stylization of waves.

Sericin (English): A gummy substance that glues together the filaments in a cocoon.

sha: stiff gauze weave with figured patterns; braiding of threads occurs in warp and weft directions; figures are created by changing to twill weave where design requires [trad.]

Shibori (Tie-Dye): a type of resist dyeing in which certain areas on the cloth are reserved from dyeing by binding dots, stitching, or clamping and squeezing the cloth between boards. Different from other dyeing techniques, shibori creates a raised and wrinkled surface on the finished work.

Shibori: may be machine-made or hand-made. The latter demands a high price because it is such elaborate and intricate work. The most primitive of all dyeing methods, tie-dyeing is practiced throughout the world. The most primitive of all dyeing methods, tie-dyeing is practiced throughout the world. Numerous tie-dying techniques have been handed down in Japan over the centuries. These may be divided into three main types: tying such as in Hitta (or kanoko (deer spot)) shibori and Miura shibori; stitching and gathering such as in hiranui (stitched) shibori, orinui (folded and stitched) shibori and mokume (woodgrain) shibori, and the use of water resistant materials such as bamboo bark or vinyl such as in kawamaki (leather wrapped) shibori and boshi (hat) shibori. In oke (bucket) shibori, part of the fabric is sealed inside a bucket and the fabric that is left outside is dyed. In ara (lit. 'storm') shibori or bo (rod) shibori, fabric is wrapped around a thick rod and squeezed. In the case of itajime, wooden boards with patterns carved into them are clamped to either side of the fabric before dyeing.

Shichigosan: Shichigosan is seven-five-three in Japanese. It is a gala day for children aged three, five and seven years of age. On November 15, parents take their children to a Shinto shrine to offer prayer for their children's growth. Boys are taken at age three and five, and girls three and seven. The children are dressed up in a gala kimono or fancy clothes to go to the shrines.

Shifu: fabric of cotton warp and twisted paper wefts [BtTB, Nagasaki, pg.17]

Shikishi: squares of tinted or decorated paper used for inscribing poetry; also used as a decortive motif on kimono; see also tanzaku [trad.]

Shikon: purple tint.

Shikunshi: A general term for a combination of four plants; orchid, chrysanthemum, plum and bamboo.

Shina: Japanese linden; bast fiber used for fabric [BtTB, Nagasaki, pg.17]

Shinshi : Fabrics must be kept as flat as possible during dyeing. This is achieved by the use of shinshi, pliable bamboo rods with spikes at both ends. These are bent and the spikes inserted into the edges of the fabric, tensioning the fabric across its width. There are two kinds of shinshi: thin rods used singly and placed across the width of the fabric at right angles to the edges, and thicker rods used in pairs and joined together in a cross shape.

Shinzen : dip-dyeing used to dye both yarn and cloth.

Shippo: Interlocking circles. Literally "seven treasures"; a design said to symbolize the Seven Treasures of Buddhism: crystal (hari), lapis (ruri), gold (kin), silver (gin), mother-of-pearl (shako), coral (sango), and carnelian (meno).

Shiromuku: "pure white" White kimono worn with white and silver or gold obi for part of the wedding ceremony

Shishu: (embroidery). The word shishu is made up of two Chinese characters: "shi" meaning "to sew with a needle" and "shu" meaning "to stitch patterns with yarns of different colours".

Shitsuke: threads that keep kimonos in good shape while being remade after washing.

Shochikubai: (pine, bamboo, plum) motif: an auspicious design especially felicitous for wedding decorations or gifts.

Shok'o: geometric pattern of alternating octagons and squares; abstraction of turtle carapace; often has floral motifs set within each panel [trad.]

Shusu: satin weave. A simple float weave requiring a minimum of five warp and wefts groups where warps float over a minimum of four wefts, are never bound by more than one weft, and diagonal alignment of floats is prevented by maintaining at least one intervening warp between binding points on successive wefts. The surface is shiny and smooth.

sobatsugi: vest-like garment with an open front; modeled upon a sleeveless ho; used to represent armor for warrior roles in No- performances [JCaTA,pg.59,60]

Sode: "sleeve"

Soko: Heddles or warp-controllers, important components of the loom that are moved up and down to separate groups of warp threads to enable the weft to be passed in between.

Somewake: style of kimono decoration with complex, overall compositions; executed in multiple techniques and elaborate detail; resulting in dense composite designs [JCaTA,pg.119,120]

Suehiro: open fan motif.

Suhama: stylized motif composed of three lobes; often employed as a landscape element (sandbar) [AoJ,v.1,pg.77,139]

Sumi ink: A black ink made of pinewood charcoal or lamp soot mixed with a gum-like substance soluble in water.

Sumi nagashi (flowing ink): marble-like grain pattern produced by dripping ink on damp paper; frequently used to decorate poetry sheets in the Heian period [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

Suo: a russet tint derived from sappanwood chips [Caesalpina sappan]; originally introduced to Japan from China in the Asuka period [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg.27]

Surihitta: A stencilled imitation of the shibori technique called hitta in which small square motifs with a small dot of color in the center cover a specific area.

Surihaku: Metallic leaf. Paste is applied to the fabric, and gold and/or silver leaf is pressed on. After the paste has dried, the excess leaf is rubbed off to articulate a motif.

Susohiki: a style of wearing the kosode indoors that allows the full hem to trail after the wearer; not comonly seen, except among geiko; by extension, a kosode that has an unbroken pattern which continues onto the interior lining; often worn in dance recitals with the lower overlap purposely folded outward [trad.]

Tabane-Noshi: One of the noshi-monyou patterns. Noshi originally means narrow strips of dried abalone bundled together in the middle, it was the ritual offering to God in Japanese Shinto religion. Often seen in the masterpieces of furisode kimonos, during the middle of Edo era, used by various techniques.

Taima: hemp [Cannibis sativa; leaf fiber favored for use in summer garments by the bushi class; also used as a motif [asa+no=ha]; [BtTB, Cort, pg. 38]

Takarabune: treasure ship.

Takarakagi: "treasure key", one of the auspicious Collection of Treasures motifs.

Takara zukushi: Collection of Treasures motif: a decorative design made up of auspicious objects deriving from Chinese legend.

Tamoto: hanging sleeve.

Tan: A standard bolt of kimono cloth sufficient to make one kimono. Traditional width of fabric is approximately 36 cm (14 inches) and length is 10.6 meters (about 12 yards).

Tanzaku: stiff, rectangular slips of paper; intended for transcribing poems; frequently used as a decorative motif on textiles; see also shikishi [trad.]

Takeyamachi: elaborate, figured gauze weaves; multiple colors and gold or silver thread may be added; named after the district of Kyoto where such fabrics are traditionally woven; especially favored by Zen clergy of the Kamakura period [JCaTA,pg.140]

Tasuki: geometric motif, consisting of parallel lines forming a lattice of diamonds; originally, sawtooth border of triangles filled with parallel lines; earliest examples found on dotaku, a bell-shaped, ceremonial bronze form; [AoJ,v.1,pg.25,139]

Tate-nishiki: (warp-patterned brocade).

Tatewaku: pattern of vertical, evenly-spaced, undulating lines arranged along the warp (tate) that alternately define constricted then swollen spaces; frequently filled with other decorative motifs [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

Tebako: lidded box with removable interior compartments; frequently rectangular in form; first used by court ladies as cosmetic cases; also used as a decorative motif on textiles and ceramics [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

Tenugui: A small, all-purpose towel made of lightweight cotton, often with a stencilled or shibori design and indigo dyed.

Tochirimen: Also known as muslin. Thin fabrics woven with wool threads by Hira-ori that is the most common weaving technique.

Tomoe: motif comprised of two, or more comma-shaped elements with the heads grouped at the center and the tails sweeped in the same direction to form the circumference [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

Tomesode: formal kosode for married women at wedding and other formal occasions; typically decorated with yuzen-dyed motifs near the hem. Usually are adorned with family crests.

Torii: ceremonial gateway which designates entry to Shinto precincts; constructed of two posts and one lintel that overhangs its' supports; often with additional braces for posts and sometimes an elaborate eaved roof [trad.]

Tsuba: disk-shaped sword guard worn on daisho (paired long and short sword); fitted over the blade; often elaborately decorated; motif sometimes used on men's clothing [trad.]

Tsujigahana (crossed flowers): decorative style that combines tie-dying and painting techniques; employs stitched borders to reserve areas for decoration; often supplemented by painted flowers; first popularized in Momoyama period; dyed edges often soft and blurred; [JCaTA,pg.145,48]

Tsukesage: informal, woman's kosode; characterized by decoration composed in vertical masses at both front and back hems [trad.]. One family crest on the center back is standard. Tsukesage is worn at either formal or informal occasions and refers to the way in which the patterns are dyed.The patterns of hemline go upward and meet at the top of the shoulders and the patterns on the sleeves also are the same.

Tsumugi: plain weave fabric; characterized by hand twisted silk filaments made from hatched cocoons; often results in uneven thickness of yarns; produces a pleasant irregular look suitable for casual wear despite its' labor intensive technique; regional varieties exist.

Tsumugi: A textile woven with hand-spun threads from cocoon fibres. It doesn't have a glossy nor smooth texture, but tasteful rough texture. The low quality, dirty and dupion (double) cocoons that were an inevitable product of raising silkworms were used to make raw silk which the farmers, during the quiet months of winter, spun into yarn and wove into what is known as tsumugi (pongee). Unlike high quality silk yarn taken from good cocoons, tsumugi yarn has to be twisted and joined as it is spun. The small knots thereby created give rise to the distinctively nubbly texture of the woven fabric. The sturdiness of tsumugi made it popular for clothing among samurai as well as rich townsmen and farmers.

Tsuru: Crane motif

Tsuru Kame: combined crane and tortoise motif.

Tsurubami: grey-brown tint derived from acorns of oak [Quercus acutissima]; [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg.25]

Tsutsugaki: free-hand dying technique similar to yuzenzome; employs a squeeze tube to apply resist; produces a cruder line and hence a rustic look; [BtTB, Mellott, pg.53-5]

Tsuzumi: hand-held drum; usually played by striking with the free hand; sometimes used as textile motif in conjunction with other instruments, but other combinations are common [trad.]

Tsuzure ori:a form of tapestry weave in which the design threads are floated across the back of the fabric; often used for No' costumes [trad.]

Uchide no kozuchi: mallet of good fortune, one of the auspicious Collection of Treasures motifs. This mallet appears in traditional children’s tales, where it is depicted as granting the wishes of whoever shakes it.

Uchikake: Uchikake is a full-length unbelted outer robe with trailing hem. Until the Edo period, it was worn by women of Samurai, warrior, or noble families on special occasions. Since then, it had become a part of Japanese traditional bridal costume. Now it is only used for a wedding ceremony. The cotton is put inside the hemline to give added weight and form at the bottom

Uchiwa: round-faced fan: has fixed frame sandwiched between paper layers; often used as decorative motif in its' own right [AoJ,v.1,pg139]

Uki ori : float weave, a patterning technique in which yarn is deliberately left to float across the surface of the underlying weave structure.

Umanori hakama: loose, pleated pants designed for sitting astride a horse or other outdoor activities; constructed from tanmono and tied at the waist; hem can be finished as even, open pleats, gathered by drawstrings at ankles, or fitted from the knee to the foot with button or tabi closures [trad.]

Unban: cloud-shaped bronze gong; first introduced with Zen Buddhism in Kamakura period; forms part of monastic paraphenalia [AoJ,v.1,pg.121,139]

Uroko: reptile (fish or snake) scale motif consisting of equilateral triangles arranged in parallel rows and ranks; usually single color constrasts with fabric ground [trad.]

Wachigai: geometric pattern used on yusoku textiles; see shippo tsunagi

Wafuku: literally "Japanese dress"; in contra-distinction to yofuku; word coined in Meiji era to distinguish it from non-traditonal [i.e. Western] dress; [K:FC,pg.10]

Warabide: fern leaf pattern [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

Warinui: A variation of hiranui (satin stitch). The bilaterally symmetrical motif is divided into two areas by its axis and embroidered from its outlines towards the axis. It produces a V-shape and is suitable for such motifs as leaves and feathers.

Yabo: "good taste" as defined by samurai class as opposed to court styles (see goshuden); later interpreted to mean "old hat", "out-of-date" when applied by the chonin class to samurai styles; now used to define trite taste (especially in personal dress); juxtaposed to iki [JCaTA,pg.87-89,90]

Yaburitsugi (torn patches): Heian-style paper collage technique frequently used to decorate paper for transcribing poems; sometimes used as a textile motif [AoJ,v.1,pg.58,139]

Yagasuri: repeated kasuri pattern resembling arrow (ya) fletching; usually created by staggering warp threads that have been resist dyed to produce trapezoidal forms [trad.]

Yamagata: horizontal border with abstracted representation of mountains; either plain zig-zag line or with crenellated points added on top [trad.]

Yatsuhashi (8-plank bridge): a planked foot-bridge motif; often laid among iris marshes; popularized by Ogata Korin, a leading Rimpa School artist of the Genroku Era [AoJ, v.1,pg.108]

Yofuku: lit. "Western Clothing"; in contra-distinction to wafuku; coined in Meiji era to differentiate clothing [i.e. "kimono"] into native versus foreign dress [K:FC,pg.10]

Yogi: oversized, padded kimono-form comforter; developed for cold weather sleeping; often elaborately decorated in tsutsugaki technique when it formed part of a brides trousseau [trad.]

Yotsumi: Kimonos for about 4-13 year-old kids.

Yukata: very casual, unlined kosode; typically made of cotton or other vegetable fiber; usually dyed with indigo utilizing the katazome technique; traditionally worn after a bath; nowdays, more commonly worn at festivals and at traditional Japanese inns.

Yukiwa: "snow flake and circle" pattern.

Yusoku: originally the customs and ceremonies of the Imperial court; by extension, traditions of the Heian period, which reflects court taste; many motifs are of foreign origin [AoJ,v.1,pg.123]

Yuzen: A combination of techniques using resist paste to define different-colored pattern areas, to create fine white outlines, and to protect pattern areas from the background color, which is usually applied by brush (hikizome). In the late 17th century, a Kyoto fan painter by the name of Miyazaki Yuzen took Japan by storm with his novel designs and sophisticated dyeing technique, transforming the world of Edo period fashion. In a stroke this new technique, which was named Yuzen dyeing after its inventor, swept aside the design limitations of the hitherto mainstream decorative methods of shishu (embroidery) and shiborizome (tie-dyeing). During the 20th century a new method was developed using raw rubber instead of rice paste. This and the use of wax resist have further expanded the artistic possibilities of Yuzen dyeing.

To create a yuzen-dyed garment, the fabric is subjected to the following fifteen processes:

1) the fabric is washed.

2) the fabric is steamed to smooth it and to make it a uniform width.

3) the fabric widths are loosely sewn together so that the pattern can be adjusted to the seam allowances, after which the stitching is taken out.

4) the outlines of the patterning are painted on the fabric with a blue extract of aobana, that will disappear when the fabric is washed.

5) The outlines of the patterning are covered with a rice paste resist. When the paste is applied in very fine lines that become part of the patterning, the yuzen is called itome yuzen.

6) The fabric is brushed with a fine soybean extract made by dissolving a ground soybean mash in water. It prevents the dyes from running and is essential for the setting of the dyes in step 8.

7) The motifs in the patterned areas outlined by the resist paste in step 5 are painted with dyes.

8) The fabric is steamed to set the dyes.

9) The patterned areas are covered with a thick layer of rice paste.

10) The entire fabric is brushed with the white soybean extract to assure an evenly colored background.

11) The dye for the background is brushed over the entire surface of the fabric.

12) The fabric is steamed to set the background dye.

13) All the paste and excess dye is washed out of the fabric.

14) The fabric is steamed to smooth it and make it a uniform width.